This major research paper examines the way the Ontario immigrant settlement sector provides advocacy on behalf of newcomers. It sets out to answer three general questions: How does the sector interact with government? How does it maintain its role as advocate while under significant strain? Is the relationship between the state and the third sector underdoing change, and if so, what new opportunities for advocacy are arising? Through a comprehensive literature review and four key informant interviews, this paper discusses the history of the sector and three new developments, namely the Voluntary Sector Initiative, the Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement and the formation of the Canadian Immigrant Settlement Sector Alliance. Recent developments indicate that the government and the third sector are beginning to work towards a system of shared governance where the third sector is a partner in policy research, development and implementation.