Theses

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  • The Bus Stops Here: Rethinking Our Approach to Bus Transit
    The Bus Stops Here: Rethinking Our Approach to Bus Transit
    This paper will challenge the traditional approach to providing bus transit, particularly on busy high-frequency arterial routes. It posits that conventional bus services are unable to meet contemporary urban sustainability and mobility challenges. Emerging approaches, such as the various forms of bus rapid transit, hold promise as ways to improve the perception of the bus and its usefulness to current transit riders and potential riders. This study uses a survey of best practice in bus transit improvements, as well as key informant interviews with professional service planners in the transit industry. Key findings are directed at the need for new and interdisciplinary ways of working, interdepartmental coordination, a high degree of active public engagement, and physical changes to bus transit systems. The findings informed a series of recommendations to help address the image and performance of bus transit in Toronto.
    The CBC's "Seven wonders of Canada" : exclusionary aspects of a project of national identity
    The CBC's "Seven wonders of Canada" : exclusionary aspects of a project of national identity
    The topic of my major research paper is national identity in the context of cultural pluralism. The paper has as its goal a socio-cultural analysis of national belonging. Immigration policy as gateway has, historically, excluded certain groups from entry to the country; nationalisms have prevented some of those who have gained entry to the country from gaining entry to the nation. I argue that the CBC's"Seven Wonder of Canada" campaign is one such nationalism, revealing nationalist tropes which include the cultural centre's longstanding tradition of identifying with the landscape and its more recent tradition of identifying with multicultural ideology - in its construction of national identity. Ultimately, this paper demonstrates that the campaign reflects an a-historic notion of national identity in which both geography and multiculturalism are used by the cultural centre to exclude. The construction of an exclusionary notion of national identity is necessarily challenged by notions of cultural pluralism. In the context of imbalanced power relations, mainstream Canadians, the cosmopolite and the Other vie for a share of national space.
    The CC-Game: A Variant Of The Game Of Cops And Robbers
    The CC-Game: A Variant Of The Game Of Cops And Robbers
    Cops and Robbers is a vertex pursuit game played on graphs. The objective of the game, as the name suggests, is for a set of cops to catch the robber. We study a new variant of this game in which the robber can attack a cop or fight back. This variation restricts the movement of the cops and changes many of the parameters and strategies achieved in the regular game. We explore aspects of this variant such as classifications for certain cop numbers, upper and lower bounds, strategies on special graphs, the cop number on products of graphs, complexity of computations, and density of cops in infinite graphs.
    The California Gold Rush:  approaches to producing daguerreotype views.  An examination of views in the Matthew R. Isenburg Collection at AMC Toronto
    The California Gold Rush: approaches to producing daguerreotype views. An examination of views in the Matthew R. Isenburg Collection at AMC Toronto
    This thesis examines daguerreotypes of outdoor views made during the California Gold Rush from 1848 to 1856, now in the Matthew R. Isenburg Collection at AMC Toronto. The views were made for private commissions, public viewings, and as models for engraving. Daguerreotypists encountered a number of challenging working conditions in the field, different from those in galleries where portraits were taken. In analyzing 18 daguerreotypes from the Isenburg Collection, this thesis investigates how working conditions during the Gold Rush such as light, climate, and terrain, influenced daguerreotypists`s decisions when making views; these include the choice of camera apparatus, optics and aperture, variations in exposure times, and composition and vantage points. By considering the purposes of such views, and the photographer`s approaches to making them, the thesis explains the appearance of these early visual documents of the western American frontier.
    The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members' experience with social services in the military:  an exploratory study
    The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members' experience with social services in the military: an exploratory study
    The aim of this study was to critically explore the strengths, limitations, barriers and gaps in social services within the CAF in relation to delivery, access and uptake of social services while employed in the CAF. The study provided CAF members an opportunity to express their thoughts, ideas and opinions based on their lived experiences, and to explore creative responses and solutions to issues members face with social services in the CAF. Presented are the findings from data collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with recently released CAF members. Themes that emerged from the research captured the lived experiences of the participants and were related to: differences between components (Regular Force vs. Reserve Force), perceived need and its effect on utilization of services, significant improvements in services post 9/11 and Afghanistan, organizational and systemic influence, impact of service providers, and better promotion of social services to the greater CAF community.
    The Canadian Point System and Its Discontents: Integration of Immigrants into the Labour Market into the 21st Century
    The Canadian Point System and Its Discontents: Integration of Immigrants into the Labour Market into the 21st Century
    This paper offers a historical review of the evolution of the point system. It is crucial to understand the past in order to understand immigrants' current economic performance. Canada's immigration policy has evolved over time by adjusting to the economic, social and political needs of each specific period. However, the current immigration policy, in the form of the point system, is not flexible in meeting the needs of the Canadian labour market. The point system currently requires immigrants to have a high level of education and proficiency in English or French. However, research indicates that immigrans are not doing as well as expected financially. This paper will analyze and seek answers to the following research questions: Does the point system reflect the needs of the labour market and is it an effective tool for measuring the needs of the Canadian nation? The theoretical frameworks that will be used are human capital theory and labour market segmentation theory. This paper will be focusing on the relationship between Canadian immigration policy and the needs of the labour market.
    The Characterization of Significant Direct Threats to Source Watersheds: a Risk-Based Approach
    The Characterization of Significant Direct Threats to Source Watersheds: a Risk-Based Approach
    In 2004, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment proposed the 'Drinking water source protection act' which stipulated that, in the development of water protection plans, significant direct threats to source watersheds are to be identified. Examination of the major risk factors threatening water resources proved there are insufficient scientific data available to regulators to accomplish this task. Research showed E.coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum, and the sources of these pathogens in the environment are, qualitatively, significant threats to water resources. However, a quantitative characterization of significance depends of the failure probabilities of pathogen sources. Using the Ontario Spills Action Centre data, the occurrence of failure was found to have a high non-zero probability. However, considerable uncertainties revealed in these data suggest that a better understanding of failure is critical to accurately characterize significant threats to drinking water resources.
    The Class Yearbook And Photomechanical Production A Description And Analysis Of Class Yearbooks At The University Of Rochester
    The Class Yearbook And Photomechanical Production A Description And Analysis Of Class Yearbooks At The University Of Rochester
    In North America, the class yearbook is a well known cultural object, traditionally published in middle and high schools, as well as post-secondary institutions, these publications function as keepsake items for each school year. The tradition of the yearbook has, for the most part, survived from the early nineteenth century into the twenty-first century. However, the practice of producing class yearbooks is slowly changing due to the proliferation of digital and online media, and the popularity of social networking websites. This thesis uses the historical examination and physical analysis of a set of class yearbooks at the University of Rochester to answer the question: How do the class yearbooks at the University of Rochester illustrate evolving photographic and print technologies? By employing the use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods and data analysis, this project chronicles the 153-year run of the annual student yearbook production at the University of Rochester, Interpres, to illustrate how this yearbook production has changed physically, visually, and contextually over time.
    The Code and Politics of Drupal and the Pirate Bay: Alternative Horizons of Web2.0
    The Code and Politics of Drupal and the Pirate Bay: Alternative Horizons of Web2.0
    Code politics investigates the implications of digital code to contemporary politics. Recent developments on the web, known as web2.0, have attracted the attention of the field. The thesis contributes to the literature by developing a theoretical approach to web2.0 platforms as social structures and by contributing two cases of web2.0 structurations: Drupal, a content management platform, and The Pirate Bay, a file sharing website and political movement. Adapting the work of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe on articulation theory, the thesis studies the code and politics of the two cases. The Drupal case studies the complex interactions between humans and code, and addresses how Drupal functions as an empty platform allowing its users to reconstitute its digital code. The Pirate Bay case demonstrates how a political movement uses code as part of their political platform. Not only does the group advocate file sharing, they allow thousands of people across the world to share information freely. At a time, when most web2.0 platforms act as forces of capitalism, the two cases demonstrate alternative, commons-based structurations of web2.0.
    The Collapse of The New Republic: The Rise and Fall of Ideologies in a Digital Age
    The Collapse of The New Republic: The Rise and Fall of Ideologies in a Digital Age
    The journalism industry is undergoing a profound shift from print to digital media, which has allowed for new modes of storytelling (e.g. Twitter or listicles) and ways of capturing audiences (e.g. click-baiting and data-tracking). This shift in media appears to be attended by a more fundamental ideological shift, where the economic and democratic affordances of digital media have contributed to a privileging of quantity (audience or financial growth) over quality (substance-driven, intellectual journalism). To examine this issue, this paper puts the recent collapse of The New Republic magazine under the microscope. On December 5th, 2014, two thirds of the magazine’s masthead resigned enmass over an ideological dispute involving an increased focus on digital media. Using this profound ideological schism as the launching point for discussion, this paper inquires: what are the opposing ideologies within The New Republic collapse, how do they relate to digital media, and can the collapse at The New Republic be seen as a microcosm for an ideological shift occurring across the journalism industry?
    The Collective Memory Of Space: The Architecture Of Remembering And Forgetting
    The Collective Memory Of Space: The Architecture Of Remembering And Forgetting
    The formation of national memory depends to a large extent on a nation’s success in constructing multiple commemorative forms: symbols, ceremonies and celebrations, museums and monuments, tradition, and cultural texts that provide symbolic arenas for narrating the nation. These forms assist the nation’s memory in tracing themes of continuity between the past and present; they establish shared history and cultural heritage. Significant changes in the nation’s life, whether social of political, later the collective mind of its citizens. With political landscapes changing, existing forms of remembrance may be transformed or reinterpreted or they may be altogether demolished and new commemorative symbols constructed in their place. Remembering, as well as forgetting, becomes a social and highly politicized process.A point of departure for this thesis is the city of Sofia, Bulgaria. It is studied as a palimpsest, uncovering layers of history from antiquity to the present. Studying the historical layers reveals not just the evolution of the city but also the political views and ideas shaping Sofia’s morphology. The street becomes a locus of collective memory. A memory walk is developed, exposing the history of specific sites, rendering visible the specific memories and acknowledging the importance of the sites in the time period they existed. A narrative is constructed, travelling through space and rebuilding memories.This thesis will look at issues of public commemoration, remembering and forgetting traumatic events. It will focus on political transformations of space and erasing, shaping and rebuilding a nation’s memory. Deliberate demotion of built fabric in an attempt to erase the collective memory of society will be examined.
    The Command to Look: The Nudes of William Mortensen
    The Command to Look: The Nudes of William Mortensen
    The Command to Look: the Nudes of William Mortensen considers the use of the female form by William Herbert Mortensen (American, 1897-1965), who during his life was a prominent pictorialist photographer, writer, and teacher. The aim of this thesis is to better understand Mortensen's work through an examination of his most prominent subject matter -- the nude. This study focuses on 43 prints and negatives from the permanent collection of the George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film. Mortensen was chosen because he and his work represent a period in history of American photography that is given relatively little attention.