Theses

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  • Thickening the Public Realm: Choreographing the Interaction of the Public Realm with the Built Environment
    Thickening the Public Realm: Choreographing the Interaction of the Public Realm with the Built Environment
    The ground plane has always been the primary domain of public activities. However, cities developed under the Modernist influence demonstrate an “object-in-space” circumstance with proliferating sky-scrappers that fragment the city’s ground surface into mid-block spaces and vaguely defined plazas. The demands of motorized-transportation and private enterprise further scatter spaces for pedestrian activities across the plan, section and stratified layers of the city (subterranean or/and elevated networks).The result is an inconsistent public realm that remains from being animated by public vitality. Through the manipulation of the ground-plane, this thesis seeks to remedy such stratification. It posits that a thickening of the ground to create a three-dimensional spatial condition will amplify opportunities for social interaction within otherwise muted civic surfaces. Addressing the contemporary reality of the multiplied ground, this thesis advocates reactivating it as a thickened continuous public domain that dissolves the polarity between the built and social fabric of the city.
    Thin wafer dicing using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser
    Thin wafer dicing using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser
    The demand for more compact and more efficient stable devices is driving the semiconductor industry towards the use of thin wafers with thickness less than 100μm. The stackable devices made with these thin wafers offer a greater advantage for the IC manufacturing industry in terms of circuit density, higher clock speeds and heat dissipation. Dicing, being the first step of the assembly process, plays an important role in the success of the application of thin wafers. Currently used mechanical saw dicing and conventional dicing do not satisfy the need for quality and throughput. The mechanical and thermal damage, low die strength and throughput, push towards seeking of a new dicing technique.This thesis proposes a femtosecond laser dicing technique to overcome the limitation of the currently used techniques. A high repetition rate, high power femtosecond laser is investigated for meeting the quality and throughput requirement. A feasibility study of the proposed laser system and the analysis of control parameters, such as the number of pulses, scan speed and pulse energy, are also presented. The influence of pulsewidth and repetition rate on parameters such as the ablation threshold, kerf width, ablation depth, fluence and debris are analyzed in detail. Results of die strength and surface analysis of the dies cut using the proposed laser system show the capability of meeting the current quality and throughput requirement and hence can be considered a significant step towards commercial application of the proposed dicing technique.
    Things As Yet Unknown : A Finding Aid For Selected 8 x 10 Negatives From The Roger Mertin Archive
    Things As Yet Unknown : A Finding Aid For Selected 8 x 10 Negatives From The Roger Mertin Archive
    This thesis and project centers on a portion of the 8x10 inch negatives of the Roger Mertin Archive at George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography & Film, in Rochester, New York. Roger Mertin, a once‐prominent photographer, came of age artistically during a turning point in photographic history—he widespread “cademization”of the field. Sorely under‐researched, Mertin’ work remains a critical example of an aesthetic attitude exhibited by a number of influential photographers from his generation. Since taking custody of the Archive, GEH has kept it in storage, relatively undisturbed. Throughout most of 2012, an item‐level spreadsheet was compiled and the objects were catalogued and given accession numbers. In satisfaction of the requirements for a Master’ degree in Photographic Preservation and Collections Management from Ryerson University, this thesis outlines, discusses and defends my methodology. The resulting finding aid also includes appendices thought to be useful to current and future researchers.
    This Thesis is Garbage: Rethinking Waste, Empowering Communities, Experimenting with Informality for an Unsettling Future
    This Thesis is Garbage: Rethinking Waste, Empowering Communities, Experimenting with Informality for an Unsettling Future
    In order to counter contemporary threats to the security of contemporary societies radical experimentation into new ways of living is needed. Taking inspiration from the global phenomenon of informal cities and their unique relationship with waste materials and spaces, this thesis proposes alternative ways of approaching community development in Affluent World cities. It envisions a development paradigm that incorporates user control in the design and construction of housing and other community infrastructure, encouraging the scavenging of materials and the re-appropriation of underused land. In line with the successful development practices now being carried out in informal settlements around the world, this bottom-up approach to development has surprising and encouraging implications for the practice of architecture and the quality of the built environment. Far from a dystopian view of society, this thesis presents an approach to building resilience into cities in a manner that does not shy away from the most pressing problems of today.
    This is (not) a laneway. Envisioning Toronto's future mid-block communities
    This is (not) a laneway. Envisioning Toronto's future mid-block communities
    The City of Toronto's laneway network is an untapped resource whose potential for residential development can support unique architectural opportunities and promote much needed sustainable and livable urban communities. Residential laneway development, as a form of infill, has the potential to increase the City's density without threatening the existing City fabric while providing a highly demanded housing typology. This thesis is structured around three intentions. It attempts to prove that laneway housing development is an opportunity for alleviating Toronto's housing requirements; imagines what this housing typology would look like in the context of Toronto's urban form; and explores the evolution of the laneway housing form in the entire laneway context. Arguing that when designed from this perspective, the laneway housing form has the potential to foster the growth of strong and desirable mid-block communities.
    This is the American Earth: An exhibition and book by Ansel Adams, Nancy Newhall, and the Sierra Club
    This is the American Earth: An exhibition and book by Ansel Adams, Nancy Newhall, and the Sierra Club
    During a remarkable period of growth for the Sierra Club during the Cold War, the club sponsored This Is the American Earth in 1954, a collaborative project between Ansel Adams and Nancy Newhall that resulted in a 1955 exhibition of photographs and a 1960 photobook on the theme of nature conservation. The two productions of photography provide a crucial opportunity to examine how the medium was employed as a campaign tool and an instrument of propaganda over a period of six years. Yet, the project has been almost exclusively defined by its 1960 book. This thesis aims to recuperate the message and import of the 1955 exhibition to determine the function of the entire project, significantly revealing that in addition to being a social and political device, This Is the American Earth marked a critical point in Adams’s and Newhall’s ongoing battle for photography’s recognition as a fine art.
    Threads of Jewish identity in salon culture: Rahel Varnhagen and Florine Stettheimer
    Threads of Jewish identity in salon culture: Rahel Varnhagen and Florine Stettheimer
    Florine Stettheimer's painting Soiree (1917-19), which serves as the frontispiece to this essay, depicts what may be considered a self-portrait of sorts: a scene representing a social gathering at the Stettheimer salon on the Upper West Side. As depicted in the painting, habitues of differing social, political and artistic backgrounds have come together to socialize with other artists, enjoy the food displayed in the foreground, and view the new work painted by their hostess; in fact, Florine herself is represented in the nude in a large canvas in the centre of the painting with the guests delicately turning their backs to the painting. This ironic painting of a live salon scene at the Stettheimers allows viewers a glimpse into a social, cultural, and artistic institution that has remained somewhat under researched in the ways in which it defies some of the rules of mainstream society. Sociability, evoked in the epigraph, was also the focus of Rachel Varnhagen's early nineteenth-century salon in Berlin, a space in which racial and gender boundaries were crossed. Located in the private domestic space of somebody's home, the salon was an influential social institution and a vehicle that ultimately empowered women as this essay will document by exploring Rahel Varnhagen and Florine Stettheimer's important careers as salonieres. As this essay will argue, the salon especially empowered doubly marginalized Jewish women and allowed them to overcome limitations of the traditional roles considered appropriate for Jewish women who were able to claim strong intellectual, social, and artistic identities by using the salon as their vehicle.
    Three Dimensional Effect of Axial Magnetic Field to Suppress Convection in the Solvent of Ge0.98Si0.02 Grown By the Traveling Solvent Method
    Three Dimensional Effect of Axial Magnetic Field to Suppress Convection in the Solvent of Ge0.98Si0.02 Grown By the Traveling Solvent Method
    A three dimensional numerical simulation of the effect of an axial magnetic field on the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer within the solvent of GE0.98Si0.02 grown by the travelling solvent method is presented. The full steady state Navier-Stokes equations, as well as the energy, continuity and the mass transport equations, were solved numerically using the finite element technique. It is found that a strong convective flow exists in the solvent, which is known to be undesirable to achieve a uniform crystal. An external axial magnetic field is applied to suppress this convection. By increasing the magnetic induction, it is observed that the intensity of the flow at the centre of the crucible reduces at a faster rate than near the wall. This phenomenon creates a stable and flat growth interface and the silicon distribution in the horizontal plane becomes relatively homocentric. The maximum velocity is found to obey a power law with respect to the Hartmann number Umax Ha⁻⁷/⁴
    Three South Asian immigrant fathers' experiences of child welfare in the Greater Toronto area (GTA)
    Three South Asian immigrant fathers' experiences of child welfare in the Greater Toronto area (GTA)
    The research study explores the child welfare system experiences of South Asian immigrant fathers in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The study provides an overview of the literature related to the child welfare system, its dominant cultural practices, and how interventions impact South Asian immigrant fathers. This study uses Anti-Oppressive Practice Theory (AOP) and Critical Race Theory (CRT) as its theoretical framework to understand the fathers’ experiences by analyzing in-depth interviews of the South Asian immigrant fathers who shared their lived experiences with the child welfare system. This study’s focus is to give voice and make visible the experiences of these fathers, who feel disappointed, misunderstood, and alienated. Key words: Child welfare, maltreatment and neglect, racialized families South Asian immigrant fathers, settlement, integration
    Three dimensional finite-element modeling of blood flow in elastic vessels: effects of arterial geometry and elasticity on aneurysm growth and rupture
    Three dimensional finite-element modeling of blood flow in elastic vessels: effects of arterial geometry and elasticity on aneurysm growth and rupture
    An intracranial aneurysm (ICA) is the localized dilated of cerebral arterial segment due to a degenerative arterial disease causing local wall weakness. Sudden ICA rupture of cerebral aneurysms is the leading cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) which is a serious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. In this research work, we have developed and validated a finite-element fluid-structure interaction (FSI) 2-way coupling model using COMSOL Multiphysics® software package. We applied the model to three idealized intracranial elastic arteries under the Newtonian blood flow assumption. The blood flow was characterized as a steady flow velocity at the inflow and various values of blood pressure at the outflow, while the arterial wall was modeled as a hyperelastic neo-Hookean material. The result shows the significantly weakened wall shear stress (WSS) at the aneurysm fundus and intensified WSS at the distal side of aneurysm neck. The wall deformation and WSS may play an important role in the growth and rupture of ICAs. Moreover, based on these results we postulate that lateral saccular aneurysms located on highly curved arteries are subjected to higher hemodynamic stresses and are more prone to rupture.
    Three vernacular travel albums : a case study in the accessioning process at George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film
    Three vernacular travel albums : a case study in the accessioning process at George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film
    This thesis project considers three vernacular travel albums from 1899-1900 donated by Donald Weber to George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film in 2008. The objects are not clearly attributed to any one person. The objective of this project was to make these objects available to staff and researchers. This process consisted of condition reporting, collection description writing, cataloguing and, potentially, properly housing the objects. The thesis includes an analytical paper and examples of the practical work done, such as condition reports and cataloguing worksheets. The analytical paper includes all aspects of the process and decesions made to execute this project. It also includes historical information on travel albums in American history. The primary focus of this thesis was to accession these objects to make them available for staff and researchers. While this thesis concentrates on only three objects, it is intended to serve as a case study in the accessioning process at one particular institution.
    Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Rotation Effect on the Growth of Ge₁₋ˣSiˣ, by the Traveling Solvent Method
    Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Rotation Effect on the Growth of Ge₁₋ˣSiˣ, by the Traveling Solvent Method
    The travelling solvent method known as TSM is a process used to produce pure and homogeneous crystals. The TSM process has been tested on many alloys producing uniform and uncontaminated crystal products. A three-dimensional numerical simulation for the growth of Ge1-xSix by the travelling solvent method under axial rotation has been modelled. In this model a mesh sensitivity analysis has been carried out to find an optimum mesh which provides accurate results while saving computational time, The full Navier-Stokes equations together with the energy, mass transport and continuity equations were solved numerically using the finite element technique. The application of crucible rotation to the travelling solvent method is an attempt to control the buoyancy induced convection throughout the melt and to suppress the three-dimensional characteristics of unsteady heat flow. The application of different rotational speeds on the solvent has also been investigated. These different speeds of rotation were shown to have a considerable effect on the buoyancy induced flow. The solute distribution throughout the melt was also affected substantially. Taking these two factors into account plays a crucial role in the crystal growth process. The speed of rotation was found to have a significant effect on the intensity of the convective flow in the melt and an optimal rotational speed was encountered.