Theses

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  • Video based human gait bilateral symmetry analysis and its validity for functional assessment after an orthopaedic surgery
    Video based human gait bilateral symmetry analysis and its validity for functional assessment after an orthopaedic surgery
    A color marker based computer vision system was proposed to provide spatio-temporal and kinematic information of human gait. By detecting the markers from video sequences, this system provides quantitative gait pattern information for clinicians to evaluate the rehabilitation progress of the patients who had undertaken total knee replacement (TKR) and/or total hip replacement (THR) surgeries. The leg bilateral symmetry as an efficient feature for this evaluation purpose was proposed. To calculate this parameter, leg angle curve as a gait signature was introduced to describe the gait pattern. The symmetry is denoted by dynamic time warping (DTW) distance of this walking signature. Normal and abnormal gait can be distinguished based on the leg bilateral symmetry.
    Video content analysis based on statistical modeling
    Video content analysis based on statistical modeling
    This thesis is aimed at finding solutions and statistical modeling techniques to analyze the video content in a way such that intelligent and efficient interaction with video is possible. In our work, we investigate several fundamental tasks for content analysis of video. Specifically, we propose an outline video parsing algorithm using basic statistical measures and an off-line solution using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). A spatiotemporal video similarity model based on dynamic programming is developed. For video object segmentation and tracking, we develop a new method based on probabilistic fuzzy c-means and Gibbs random fields. Theoretically, we develop a generic framework for sequential data analysis. The new framework integrates both Hidden Markov Model and ICA mixture model. The re-estimation formulas for model parameter learning are also derived. As a case study, the new model is applied to golf video for semantic event detection and recognition.
    Video content analysis using the video time density function and statistical models
    Video content analysis using the video time density function and statistical models
    As an interesting, meaningful, and challenging topic, video content analysis is to find meaningful structure and patterns from visual data for the purpose of efficient indexing and mining of videos. In this thesis, a new theoretical framework on video content analysis using the video time density function (VTDF) and statistical models is proposed. The proposed framework tries to tackle the problems in video content analysis based on its semantic information from three perspectives: video summarization, video similarity measure, and video event detection. In particular, the main research problems are formulated mathematically first. Two kinds of video data modeling tools are then presented to explore the spatiotemporal characteristics of video data, the independent component analysis (ICA)-based feature extraction and the VTDF.Video summarization is categorized into two types: static and dynamic. Two new methods are proposed to generate the static video summary. One is hierarchical key frame tree to summarize video content hierarchically. Another is vector quantization-based method using Gaussian mixture (GM) and ICA mixture (ICAM) to explore the characteristics of video data in the spatial domain to generate a compact video summary. The VTDF is then applied to develop several approaches for content-based video analysis. In particular, VTDF-based temporal quantization and statistical models are proposed to summarize video content dynamically. VTDF-based video similarity measure model is to measure the similarity between two video sequences. VTDF-based video event detection method is to classify a video into pre-defined events. Video players with content-based fast-forward playback support are designed, developed, and implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods. Given the richness of literature in effective and efficient information coding and representation using probability density function (PDF), the VTDF is expected to serve as a foundation of video content representation and more video content analysis methods will be developed based on the VTDF framework.
    Video virality and persuasive power: it’s time and marriage equality
    Video virality and persuasive power: it’s time and marriage equality
    This master’s research project will analyze the rhetorical persuasive appeals found in a YouTube video released by Australian community advocacy group Get Up!, in support of marriage equality in Australia. The video, entitled It’s Time, was released in November 2011 and has since been viewed nearly 8 million times. This paper will identify what persuasive appeals are present in the video that may have contributed to its virality. This paper will also analyze the public YouTube comments to identify what persuasive appeals are evident in comments to either support or oppose the video’s cause, and comments will serve as a measure of the video’s success in driving support for marriage equality. Ultimately this paper aims to understand what makes a successful viral cause-related video, and if the video in question was successful in encouraging active participation in the cause amongst those who commented on the video. Active participation of users will be determined through the primary measure of the video’s success – comments.
    Views Of Egypt By Georgios And Constantinos Zangaki : Examining A Late Nineteenth-Century Photographic Album At The Art Gallery of Ontario
    Views Of Egypt By Georgios And Constantinos Zangaki : Examining A Late Nineteenth-Century Photographic Album At The Art Gallery of Ontario
    This thesis focuses on Views of Egypt, an album housed in the Art Gallery of Ontario, that contains forty-six albumen prints of which twenty-seven are made by two Greek brothers: Georgios (ca.1845-ca.1895) and Constantinos (ca. 1845-1916) Zangaki. The Zangaki brothers worked as commercial photographers in the late nineteenth century in the Levant. Considering the extensive number of prints by the Zangaki brothers in various institutions worldwide, they must have been successful; yet neither they nor their photographs are well known. Views of Egypt is part of a larger enterprise: late nineteenth-century photography in Egypt that aimed at supplying Oriental scenes and picturesque views to the Western tourist. The Zangaki brothers' photographs are representative of this period and merit closer examination. Furthermore, as it is important to preserve such examples, the last part of the thesis considers the preservation of both the album and the photographs it contains.
    Violence against Afghan immigrant women in Canada: cultural influences in help-seeking behaviours
    Violence against Afghan immigrant women in Canada: cultural influences in help-seeking behaviours
    There have been studies on abuse against immigrant women, in spousal relationships. There is also literature on state violence against women in Afghanistan. Research to date has shown that there are various structural and cultural barriers affecting the help-seeking behaviours of many immigrant women subjected to spousal abuse. If Afghan culture is preserved in Canada, then, along with potential barriers that exist as immigrants, many of these women are constrained to seek help because of cultural barriers. This issue is important to address in order to make awareness of the phenomenon. My research question is: How does culture influence abused Afghan immigrant women's help-seeking behaviours in Canada? Interviews with service providers in the Afghan community were conducted to explore explanations for the victims’ behaviours. Much of the findings were in keeping with past research related to immigrant women's lives. However, this study is unique given the group in question. I conclude that patriarchal practices rather than cultural essentialism explain the phenomenon of violence and help-seeking behaviours.
    Virtual Aamjiwnaang: Indigenous interactive storytelling
    Virtual Aamjiwnaang: Indigenous interactive storytelling
    Stories shape how we understand ourselves and the world around us. They inform our sense of belonging, and connect us to our past. Stories are our lives. And we are our stories. Given their undeniable weight, we ought to question what their form and content teaches us. Increasingly, stories are shared as interactive digital experiences; a reshaping that impacts their configuration, their reach and their outcome. For Indigenous peoples, who continue to resist the colonial paradigm, digital storytelling can represent a weapon of subtle yet pervasive colonialism or be a tool to talk back. Virtual Aamjiwnaang is an interactive platform that integrates Indigenous storytelling practices in recounting the lived realities of the Aamjiwnaang First Nation online. Inspired by the Two-Eyed Seeing approach, which encourages embracing multiple perspectives, and building on previous digital experiences, Virtual Aamjiwnaang proposes methods for creating digital territories that honour Indigenous ways of knowing.
    Virtual Human Factors Tools for Proactive Ergonomics: Qualitative Exploration And Method Development
    Virtual Human Factors Tools for Proactive Ergonomics: Qualitative Exploration And Method Development
    This thesis presents two studies that explore the use of Virtual Human Factors Tools (VHFT), such as Predetermined Motion Time Systems (PMTS), Digital Human Models (DHM) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES). Study 1 investigated the needs and expectations of ergonomist and engineers through a series of explorative workshops. Nine characteristics of concern to participants were identified in the tools: time, cost, training, difficulty to use, trustworthiness, graphics, flexibility, usefulness and report presentation. These characteristics can influence VHFT uptake and application decisions. Study 2 explored the integration of DES, PMTS, DHM and existing fatigue models, in an assembly context, to predict the accumulation of muscular fatigue. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using VHFT in conjunction and that DES can predict ergonomic outcomes such as work-related fatigue and recovery. The study also uncovered some problems with the existing fatigue models, highlighting the need for further research and development of those models.
    Virtual channel organization and arbitration for network on chip router architecure
    Virtual channel organization and arbitration for network on chip router architecure
    The advent of Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoC) has emphasized the importance of on-chip communication infrastructures. Network on Chip (NoC) has emerged as a state of the art paradigm for efficient on-chip communication. Among the various components employed in NoC routers, Virtual Channel (VC) plays an important role in the performance and hardware requirements of an NoC system. The VC mechanism enables the multiplexing and buffering of several packets to travel over a single physical channel concurrently. VC arbitration (or arbiter) is another critical organization component of a router that has significant impact on the efficiency of an NoC system. Arbiter performs arbitration among the group of VCs that are competing for a single resource (e.g. output-port). In this dissertation, we propose novel approaches for dynamic VC flow control mechanism and VC arbitration. The first two approaches are based on the adaptivity of VCs in the router input-port that improves the efficiency of NoC system. In both of techniques, the input-port comprises of a centralized buffer whose slots are dynamically allocated to VCs according to a real-time traffic situation. The performance improvement is achieved by utilizing multiple virtual channels with minimal buffer resources. The VC arbitration approach is based on an efficient and fast arbiter that functions upon the index of its input-ports (or VC requests). The architecture of arbiter scales with the Log2 of the number of inputs where a conventional round robin arbiter scales with the number of inputs. The index based behavior and the architecture of our arbiter leads to lower power consumption and chip area. This dissertation presents the organizations and micro-architectures of NoC routers. We have employed SystemVerilog at the micro-architectural level design and modeling of NoC components. We employ three CAD platforms namely ModelSim, Quartus (FPGA) and Synopsys (ASIC level) to design, simulate and implement our router based NoCs. The simulation results support the theoretical concepts of our proposed VC organization and arbitration approaches. We have also implemented and conducted simulation and modeling experiments for conventional VC organization and arbitration models. The experimental results verify the efficiency of our proposed models in terms of power, area and performance in different NoC configurations.
    Virulence response of escherichia coli O157:H7 to bile salts and short chain fatty acids
    Virulence response of escherichia coli O157:H7 to bile salts and short chain fatty acids
    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a gastrointestinal pathogen which causes hemorrhagic colitis and can lead to neurological damage, acute kidney failure (hemolytic uremic syndrome and vascular lesions. During intestinal colonization EHEC is exposed to a variety of stresses including bile salts (BS) in the small intestine and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the large intestine; little is known about how these stresses affect this pathogen's virulence properties. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of exposure of E. coli O157:H7 to physiologically relevant concentrations of BS and SCFA alone and in mixtures on bacterial survival, verotoxin production and adhesion to human epithelial cells. The results indicated that BS treatments significantly enhanced several virulence properties including survival and adhesion to human epthelial cell lines including colonic epithelial cells. Verotoxin production was not affected by any of the BS treatments. Bacterial pretreatment with erythromycin at a sub-minimal inhibitory concentration eliminated the adhesion enhancement after BS treatment, suggesting that protein synthesis was required for enhanced adhesion of BS treated organisms. Using the isogenci mutant of the known adhesions, intimin and iha it was established that there was no role for intimin or iha in the BS-induced adhesion enhancement. SCFA treatments reduced bacterial viability but significantly enhanced both adhesion to human epithelial cells and verotoxin production. The results of this research indicate that ingestion stresses such as BS and SCFA, which are part of the host's natural chemical assault on foreign organisms, may actually enhance the viulence properties of this pathogen and contribute to, rather than, prevent infection. Furthermore, they suggest that this pathogen may use these ingestion stresses to cue the expression of numerous virulence factors for successful infection of local microenvironments.
    Vis3D+ A tightly  integrated GPU-accelerated computation and rendering  framework for interactive 3D image visualization
    Vis3D+ A tightly integrated GPU-accelerated computation and rendering framework for interactive 3D image visualization
    This thesis presents extensions to an interactive 3D image visualization framework. The existing software framework provides functionality for interactively visualizing 3D medical data. The extensions consist of software modules that execute directly on the graphics hardware, utilizing the massively parallel, general-purpose computing platform provided by modern graphics processing units (GPUs). These GPUbased software modules are designed to support the execution of volume image processing algorithms, implemented using recently available GPU programs known as “compute shaders”, as well as to support interactive editing of the algorithms’ output. The new modules are seamlessly integrated as new stages in a GPU-based rendering pipeline provided by the existing framework. In this thesis, an example volume image processing algorithm known as level set segmentation is implemented and demonstrated. In addition, a new editing module is demonstrated that enables user modification of this algorithm’s output by extending a pre-existing volume “painting” interface.
    Visions of a polycentric suburb : the evolution of car-centric design
    Visions of a polycentric suburb : the evolution of car-centric design
    The following thesis investigates emerging issues surrounding car-centric design know as urban sprawl and questions whether or not it is feasible and appropriate for cities to continue sprawling in a car-centric manner given changing conditions. Social, political, environmental and economical concerns have surfaced putting a damper on the once great "American Dream" raising concerns that car-centric design can prove detrimental to humanity. The roots of modernist design are discussed and the ideas behind modernists' intentions analyzed while juxtaposing modernist vision to the real outcomes of modernism. Modernist ideas are compared and contrasted to new and old theories that challenge the modernist ideals in order to propose a new direction for future urban development. The design project takes into account the importance of connection and network through infrastructure in a globalized world. Transit infrastructure (high speed rail, improved commuter rail, rapid transit and light rail) is proposed on a number of scales in the Southern Ontario region to act as a catalyst for responsible growth interconnecting future intensified polycentric suburban cities.