Theses

  • 15449
  • 0
  • Use of single vehicle collisions to model fatigue-related crashes on rural two-lane highways
    Use of single vehicle collisions to model fatigue-related crashes on rural two-lane highways
    Fatigue-related crashes are believed to be more common on rural highways than on urban roads and on two-lane roads rather than on other rural road types. Thus an understanding of how design factors affect fatigue-related crashes on rural to-lane roads is vital. The problem is that fatigue is rarely reported as a cause of crashes, since is is rarely suspected by the police as a possible cause and since potential liability may motive the drivers not to reveal the real causes of the crash. Thus, getting a handle on these crashes thorough modeling is a formidable challenge. Fortunately, there is research to suggest that single-vehicle run-off-road crashes, particularly those during periods of low circadian rhythm, can be used as a reasonable surrogate in modeling fatigue--related crashes. The paper is based on research to examine how fatigue-related crashes rural on two-lane roads, as represented by single vehicle crashes, are affected by various engineering design factors. This study's goal is to explore the effects of fatigue on driving on rural two-lane roads in North America, and to consider how we can work towards mitigating the effects of fatigue on traffic safety. For this investigation, generalized linear and logistic regression modelling were used on US Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) data from Ohio. Models were developed separately and combined for periods of high and low circadian rhythm and for single-vehicle run-off-road and other crashes. The results show, for example, the after controlling for traffic volumes, increases in speed limit, average curvature and average gradient and decreases in surface width and average shoulder width were found to be associated with increased fatigue related crashes. Important differences were found in the effects of factors for period of low and high circadian rhythm.
    Use of topographic LiDAR point clouds for building reconstruction
    Use of topographic LiDAR point clouds for building reconstruction
    Demand for three-dimensional (3D) urban models keeps growing in various civil and military applications. Topographic LiDAR systems are capable of acquiring elevation data directly over terrain features. However, the task of creating a large-scale virtual environment still remains a time-consuming and manual work. In this thesis a method for 3D building reconstruction, consisting of building roof detection, roof outline extraction and regularization, and 3D building model generation, directly from LiDAR point clouds is developed. In the proposed approach, a new algorithm called Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to segment point clouds for building roof detection. The modified convex hull (MCH) algorithm is used for the extraction of roof outlines followed by the regularization of the extracted outlines using the modified hierarchical regularization algorithm. Finally, 3D building models are generated in an ArcGIS environment. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness and satisfactory accuracy of the developed method.
    Use the CGA, Luke: oral and visual elements of narrative in Star Wars film trailers
    Use the CGA, Luke: oral and visual elements of narrative in Star Wars film trailers
    CONCLUSION: This MRP explores the relationship between narrative structure and oral and visual narration strategies as illustrated in three Star Wars theatrical trailers. The theatrical trailers for Star Wars, Episode IV: A New Hope (1977), Star Wars, Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999), and Star Wars, Episode VII: The Force Awakens (2015) provide an overview of the development of narrative structure strategies utilized throughout the franchise’s forty-year history. By applying William Labov’s theory of narrative analysis (1972) and Bordwell and Thompson’s film style analysis (2012) to the three trailers, this MRP demonstrates that marketers are increasingly attempting to elicit an emotional reaction and connection from audience members through the use of visually compelling narratives that rely on suspense and an awareness of the Star Wars brand in popular culture. This study additionally illustrates that Labov’s model of narrative analysis is useful in the interpretation of film trailers because it can be used to identify patterns of narrative structure which can help illuminate the narrative intent behind marketing strategy. In a broader context, this study is useful in understanding how narrative structures function in film trailers, a relatively understudied marketing paratext that is increasingly important in film marketing and promotional strategies.
    User-defined B-Spline template snake
    User-defined B-Spline template snake
    This thesis has created a new Snake model that overcomes many of the limitations of the traditional finite difference snake. This new deformable model combines a novel user initialization process with a finite element B-spline snake to create a powerful semi-automatic segmentation method. Using the simple but powerful initialization process, the user recognizes critical points and regions in a specified order, and transfers this knowledge to the model. By drawing lines across the object of interest, importatn information pertaining to the global shape of the object, such as width and symmetry, is imparted to the model.The snake is parameterized using minimum number of model degrees of freedom necessary and these degrees of freedom are placed in optimal positions around the object, based on the critical points and features recognized by the user via the input lines. Thus, the model is more like a deformable template than a local snake model - it is less sensitive to noise and more amenable to propagation to subsequent image slices in a volume image or time series. Unlike a traditional deformable template model however, it is constructed and positioned by the user rather than preconstructed and automatically initialized by the segmentation system. The template snake isinitialized very close to the object boundary and is very similar in shape. Furthermore, it is "aware" of its position with respect to the object. This thesis also describes the computation of the external image forces and how the known initial position and shape of the snake can be used to design object-specific image forces.
    User-initiated design for disabled children: teaching and learning in online diy/maker communities
    User-initiated design for disabled children: teaching and learning in online diy/maker communities
    A disabled child who requires an assistive device, like a wheelchair or prosthetics, often waits many months to use very expensive commercial devices that are less than ideal. However, as the popularity of DIY (Do-It-Yourself) Maker online communities increases, disabled children and their caregivers can instead take design back into their own control, by engaging in user-initiated design (UID). By learning from other DIY/Makers and their design tutorials, disabled children and their caregivers can custom make assistive devices at a fraction of the cost. What remains to be addressed are the barriers that prevent them from participating in these online communities; preliminary research has identified some barriers, including poor tutorial design and lack of perceived skill. Thus the purpose of this research paper was to further analyze popular online communities in order to make recommendation on how to increase disabled participation, further enabling them to practice UID.
    Using A High Repetition Rate Nd: YAG Laser For Pulsed Laser Ablation Propulsion
    Using A High Repetition Rate Nd: YAG Laser For Pulsed Laser Ablation Propulsion
    Laser propulsion is a relatively new technology being researched for its vast potential. A test apparatus was developed to measure small forces using piezoelectric films and a developed amplifier tuned to the specific frequencies expected from the system. The system provided consistent results comparable to published values. The tests conducted in this thesis evaluated the effects of using a high repetition rate laser for laser propulsion. The results are on the micropropulsion scale, however, the findings are expected to perform similarly on a larger scale. The thrust, moment coupling coefficient, and specific impulse values were evaluated for aluminum, brass, and PVC of differing thicknesses. The results concluded that the repetition rate in fact did not have much effect on the thrust; thrust was primarily dependent on the pulse energy and the material thickness. The repetition rate was found to affect the specific impulse values; a result of the heat affected zone created by the laser ablation, thereby reducing the effective propellant used for propulsion.
    Using Calibrated Simulation to Quantify The energy Savings From Residential Passive Solar Design in Canada
    Using Calibrated Simulation to Quantify The energy Savings From Residential Passive Solar Design in Canada
    Energy savings from passive solar design applied to a typical Canadian house were quantified using calibrated whole building energy simulation. A detailed energy simulation model was created for a research house which represents a typical Canadian tract house with basic passive solar measures. The model was calibrated to measured furnace gas consumption data. Eight design scenarios were evaluated for eight climate locations. Design parameters included increased thermal mass, increased south window area, and high performance windows. In addition, an advanced house scenario was evaluated which featured optimized geometry, a further increase in south window area, high thermal mass, advanced glazing, and no north facing windows. For the typical house predicted solar heating fractions ranged from 20% to 34% with basic passive solar measures, and 35% to 52% for more aggressive passive solar measures. For the advanced house predicted solar fractions ranged from 40% to 69%.
    Using Ontario's Development Permit Systems To Implement Metrolinx’s Mobility Hubs In The Greater Golden Horseshoe
    Using Ontario's Development Permit Systems To Implement Metrolinx’s Mobility Hubs In The Greater Golden Horseshoe
    Through Metrolinx, the province of Ontario seeks to change the sprawling, car dependent character of The Greater Toronto and Hamilton Areas by introducing a vast network of rapid transit routes along a series of corridors, linked by a series of nodes, called mobility hubs. Following Smart Growth principles, these hubs should be buttressed by transit supportive land-use regulations, but the current land-use planning framework in the region makes such changes difficult. By implementing a little used tool in Ontario's Planning Actcalled development permit systems (DPS), the author argues that municipalities can better facilitate development around mobility hubs in a transit supportive manner that is keeping with the complex mobility hub guidelines outlined by Metrolinx. With both its flexible zoning criteria that focuses public consultations at the outset of the planning process and its expedited approvals process, DPS would facilitate transit oriented development at Metrolinx's mobility hubs.
    Using Presagis simulation software to model UAV aircraft in a humanitarian mission configuration
    Using Presagis simulation software to model UAV aircraft in a humanitarian mission configuration
    Aircraft simulation software was used together to simulate a humanitarian variant of the MQ-9 Reaper drone as well as its longitudinal stability response upon dropping an aid payload. This project derives stability derivatives from the MQ-9 dimensions using the mass moments of inertia and approximate air- foil shape using Athena Vortex Lattice (AVL) code. The stability derivatives, aircraft properties, weights and control systems were modelled with Presagis FlightSim 14 to approximate the MQ-9 flight model. A graphics model was also built using Presagis Creator and the flight model and graphics model were unified into a virtual environment. Its longitudinal short period and phugoid responses as well as the lateral Dutch mode after dropping a 200 kg payload was recorded and analysed. The older Ryan Navion was also modelled using the same method which was used to model the MQ-9. The same dynamic responses were compared to real Navion flight test and calculated data in order to validate the aforementioned modelling method.
    Using adaptive designs to promote social interaction in an inclusive early learning environment:  one child's story
    Using adaptive designs to promote social interaction in an inclusive early learning environment: one child's story
    This qualitative research study employs narrative inquiry methods to both tell and explore the story of Zivvie (a pseudonym), a preschool child with severe disabilities, and her journey in becoming a full member of her learning community in an inclusive setting. The inquiry examines the changes in her social interactions with her peers resulting from the introduction of custom adaptive design objects, and how the use of adaptive designs provided Zivvie with a level of autonomy that enabled her to make choices about how she wanted to participate in her learning community. The inquiry also explores how the teacher’s role as observer and creator of accommodations for Zivvie within the learning environment facilitated the child’s development. Recommendations for future practice and research are identified.
    Using bioleaching to remove metals from sewage sludge intended for land application
    Using bioleaching to remove metals from sewage sludge intended for land application
    Removal of heavy metal contaminants from sewage sludge is a necessity before it is used as an agricultural fertilizer (biosolid), due to environmental concerns and municipal, provincial and federal regulations. The bioleaching method is recommended as an economical and effective process for the removal of heavy metals from the Ashbridges Bay Treatment Plant (ABTP) sludge, some of them with concentrations exceeding the recommended level by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs guidelines. The Gram-negative thiobacilli is a group of organisms with physiological and morphological similarity and grows by oxidizing ferrous ion and reduced sulphur compounds. One species of thiobacillus, T. ferrooxidan , was recommended as an effective bacterium for the heavy metal removal from sewage sludge. This research involved the incubation of adapted sludge using fresh raw digested sludge and activated sludge of ABTP. Using adapted sludge for the bioleaching process, the method was tested in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in combination with a series of jar tests. Results showed that the metal removal efficiency increases with decreasing pH, and the solids content does not affect the removal efficiency of cupper and zinc very much during short term jar test. The results from the long-term (20-day) CSTR test demonstrated that the high T ferrooxians-contained adapted sludge could remove copper from the sewage sludge of ABTP very effectively, by as much as 79.2%. In comparison, the simultaneous removal efficiency of zinc and cadmium were also studied for the same process and, they are 82.0% and 83.9% respectively. The TSS degradation constant rate during the 20 days' bioleaching was found to be 0.0522 day -1. It is concluded that Ontario should continue to apply sludge to agricultural land, as sludge is an economic alternative, promotes recycling of resources, and is a valuable fertilizer. However, the toxic metals in sludge should be removed from sewage sludge using the bioleaching process to recommended level before it is disposed as a fertilizer for land application.
    Using decision trees for inductively driven semantic integration and ontology matching
    Using decision trees for inductively driven semantic integration and ontology matching
    The popularity of ontologies for representing the semantics behind many real-world domains has created a growing pool of ontologies on various topics. While different ontologists, experts, and organizations create the vast majority of ontologies, often for internal use of for use in a narrow context, their domains frequently overlap in a wider context, specifically for complementary domains. To assist in the reuse of ontologies, this thesis proposes a bottom-up technique for creating concept anchors that are used for ontology matching. Anchors are ontology concepts that have been matched to concepts in an eternal ontology. The matching process is based on inductively derived decision trees rules for an ontology that are compared with rules derived for external ontologies. The matching algorithm is intended to match taxomonies, ontologies which define subsumption relations between concepts, with an associated database used to derive the decision trees. This thesis also introduces several algorithm evolution measures, and presents a set of use cases that demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of the matching process.