Theses

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  • There's No Boys' and Girls' [Sports], They Share : Young Girls' Experiences With Team Sports
    There's No Boys' and Girls' [Sports], They Share : Young Girls' Experiences With Team Sports
    Research has identified many benefits of participating in team sports. These examinations have discovered that girls are less likely to participate in team sports than boys. This study examines the reasons why girls do or do not participate in team sports. In this qualitative study, girls aged 6 to 9 were interviewed about their experiences that have either led them to participate in team sports or not participate in team sports. Through this study it was discovered that the family and peer group play a major role in influencing team sports participation in young girls. I found that the interviewed girls believe that boys are more successful in team sports, that sports skills are gendered and there are many ways to improve team sports participation for other young girls. Through the identification of factors which encourage or discourage participation in team sports, practitioners will be better informed on how they may support girls in participating in team sports.
    Thermal Analysis of a Double Glazed Window with a Between-Panes Pleated Blind
    Thermal Analysis of a Double Glazed Window with a Between-Panes Pleated Blind
    A simplified two-dimensional numerical model of a window with a between-panes pleated blind has been developed using commercial computational fluid dynamics software. Knowledge of the effect of blinds on the free convection is important for understanding and predicting the impact of shading devices on the overall thermal performance of a window. Numerical results have been obtained for three fill gases (air, argon and krypton) and several blind geometries over the Rayleigh number range 10³ [less than or equal to]Ra[less than or equal to]10[to the exponent of 5]. The results show that pleated blinds can have a strong effect on window thermal performance. In addition, it has been shown that the data from a convection-only model can be combined with a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate the overall U-value of the enclosure. Using this procedure, the convection data can be applied to a window/blind assembly with arbitrary radiation parameters.
    Thermal Degradation Of High Molecular Weight Polyethylene To Obtain Low Molecular Weight Polyethylene Wax
    Thermal Degradation Of High Molecular Weight Polyethylene To Obtain Low Molecular Weight Polyethylene Wax
    The thermal degradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) to low molecular weight waxes (Mw of ~700) were carried out to study the reaction kinetics of the degradation mechanism under various degradation conditions. The properties of the products produced under the various degradation conditions were also studied to understand the relationship between process and product properties. Thermal degradations were carried over a range of temperatures in two types of reactors, a resin kettle purged with nitrogen in which volatiles were allowed to distill-off, and under pressure in an unvented Parr reactor. These reactors were also operated with and without catalyst to understand the effect that catalyst may have on the degradation kinetics and product. Wax products generated under atmospheric conditions without catalyst had lower polydispersity but took longer to get to the final molecular weight. Catalyzed reactions under atmospheric conditions had higher polydispersity and produced lower molecular weight products that were easily distilled off as volatile liquids and gasses. Pressure reactions with catalyst produced the lowest molecular weight products, however polydispersity was high. Pressure reactions without catalysts produced waxy materials with the lowest polydispersity.
    Thermal Dose Based Monitoring Of Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy For Prostate Cancer
    Thermal Dose Based Monitoring Of Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy For Prostate Cancer
    The two most commonly used methods of treatment monitoring and prediction in thermal therapy are the temperature threshold method and the cumulative equivalent minutes at 43°C (CEM43) thermal dose model. A newly introduced thermal dose model, the improved cumulative equivalent minutes at 43°C (iCEM43), has been preliminary shown to be more consistent than the CEM43 thermal dose model.Data from an ongoing clinical trial for laser treatment of low-grade prostate cancer was used to test the consistency of all three methods. Firstly, threshold values required to match the post-treatment damage were predicted and the iCEM43 dose model was more consistent than the CEM43 dose model, while the temperature threshold method was the most consistent. Secondly, a threshold value was chosen for each method and the damage was predicted and compared to the known damage where the iCEM43 dose model outperformed both the CEM43 dose model and the temperature threshold method.
    Thermally Induced Deformations in Nuclear Fuel Elements
    Thermally Induced Deformations in Nuclear Fuel Elements
    Nonlinear three-dimensional multibody surface-surface contacts, thermally induced deformations, and the curvature transfer factor in CANDU fuel elements are investigated using the finite element method in this thesis. ANSYS is selected to obtain numerical solutions for CANDU fuel elements under several operating conditions. In the ANSYS models, the 20-node structural elements (SOLID186) are employed to mesch individual solids; the surface-to surface contact pairs (TARGE170 and CONTA174) are used to handle contacts between solids. Sensitivity studies on the curvature transfer factor are conducted for several key operational parameters. If there is full radial contact between the pellets and the sheath, a CANDU fuel element may be considered as a composite beam because of the large length-to-diameter ratio. The Timoshenko beam theory is used in conjunction with a three-node mean element to explore the thermal deformation behaviours of a fuel element. A program written in MATLAB is much more efficient compared with the ANSYS solutions.
    Thermo mechanical analysis of through-hole solder joint using strain partitioning method
    Thermo mechanical analysis of through-hole solder joint using strain partitioning method
    Currently in the electronics industry there is a desire to increase component reliability. Fatigue failure in solder joints is an important design consideration for electronic packaging. In through-hole components, fatigue failure of leads has been observed to antecede fatigue failure of solder joints. The main objective of the study for a solder joint in a plated-through-hole bearing the pin during the temperature cycle was to ascertain the thermo mechanical behavior and the dominant deformation mode. The Digital Speckle Correlation (DSC) technique, which is a computer vision technique, was applied for the measurement of solder joint deforamtion for a prescribed outlined temperature and time. The dimensions for the area of the solder joint under study were 21 by 21 um, located at the centre of the hole. And computation of averaged shear strains at 6 data points for this area was done. R Darveaux's constitutive model was applied for the data analysis such as the solder joint yields stress with respect to the time and temperature. On achieving the stress solution, the measured total strains were partitioned into elastic, plastic and creep terms separately and hence the creep strain was evaluated. From the analysis, it was found that the dominant deformation mode was shear deformation due to mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansion between pin and copper plating material of through-hole under thermal loading. And the dominant deformation mechanism was creep strain while stress started to relax at the end of ramp up and continued throughout the test and creep strain rate decreased during high temperature dwell. In Addition, the elastic strain was dominating during the initial stage of thermal cycle but later it was neglibible when compared to creep strain., Page 50 is missing and unavailable.
    Thermo-physical characteristics of building integrated phase change materials (PCM) and their applicability to energy efficient homes
    Thermo-physical characteristics of building integrated phase change materials (PCM) and their applicability to energy efficient homes
    The applicability of utilizing a variety of thermal mass including phase change materials with commonly used building materials is investigated through the use of simulations and physical testing. The thermal performance and occupant comfort potential of a novel solid-solid phase change material, known as Dal HSM, is compared and contrasted to commonly available forms of thermal mass. Detailed experimentation is conducted to successfully integrate Dal HSM with gypsum and concrete. The measurement of physical characteristics such as compressive strength and modulus of rupture is conducted to ensure that the PCM-composite compound retains the structural integrity to be utilized in a typical building. The use of thermal mass in the Toronto Net Zero house was found to contribute to energy savings of 10-15% when different types of thermal mass were used. The comfort level of the indoor occupants was also found to increase. The performance of Dal HSM was found to be comparable to a commercially available PCM known as Micronal in the heating mode. The cooling mode revealed that Dal HSM provided slightly lower energy savings when compared to Micronal due to a lower phase transition temperature and latent heat. The performance of physical test revealed a decrease in the compressive strength as the concentration of Dal HSM was increased in the PCM-gypsum specimens. Tests were also performed to analyze the impact of increasing the PCM concentration on the flexural strength of PCM-gypsum composite.
    Thermo-solutal convection with Soret effect
    Thermo-solutal convection with Soret effect
    In the present study, the onset of thermal convection in a liquid layer overlying a porous layer where the whole system is being laterally heated is investigated. The non-linear two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations, the energy equation, the mass balance equation and the continuity equation are solved for the liquid layer. Instead of the Navier Stokes equations, the Brinkman model is used for the porous layer. The partial differential equations are solved numerically using the finite element technique. A two-dimensional geometrical model with lateral heating is considered. Two different cases are analyzed in this thesis. In the first case, the gravity driven buoyancy convection and the Marangoni convection are studied. For the Marangoni convection, the microgravity condition is considered and the surface tension is assumed to vary linearly with temperature. Different aspect ratios, as well as thickness ratios, are studies in detail for both the buoyancy and the Marangoni convection. Results revealed that for both the buoyancy and the Marangoni cases, flow penetrates into the porous layer, only when the thickness ratio is more than 0.90. In the case of thermo-solutal convection in the presence of Soret effect, it has been found that the isopropanol component goes either towards the hot or the cold walls depending on the fluid mixtures which has been used in the system.
    They don’t really care about us: the stories of previously
Incarcerated black men in Scarborough and their experiences with displaced anger through a critical race theory perspective
    They don’t really care about us: the stories of previously Incarcerated black men in Scarborough and their experiences with displaced anger through a critical race theory perspective
    This narrative qualitative research study investigates aspects of the life journey of Black male adults in the urban context, Scarborough, Ontario through a Critical Race Theory (CRT) Perspective. Four Black male adults who lived in Scarborough as teenagers with previous incarceration were interviewed. Using the counter-storytelling method through CRT, these Black men discussed their experiences with incarceration, school, life in Scarborough as Black males and displaced anger and mental health issues. This data was analyzed using Composite Narrative analysis. The narratives of these young men affirm that their experiences, including those associated with racism and lateral violence, from their school and family settings to the streets in Scarborough, confused their masculinity, affected mental health experiences, and contributed to suppressed anger which displaced in aggressive or violent ways. These men’s stories also confirm that being incarcerated further exacerbated this displaced anger phenomenon, especially surrounding masculinity and certain mental health concerns and did contribute to feelings of hopelessness when trying to reintegrate back into Scarborough following their release.
    Thick Reinforced Concrete Walls Subjected To Non-Uniform Restrained Shrinkage
    Thick Reinforced Concrete Walls Subjected To Non-Uniform Restrained Shrinkage
    Several researchers have studied the behavior of reinforced concrete walls under restraint shrinkage, which demonstrate the variation of the degree of restraint with different Length/Height ratios. In general, concrete standards and codes of practice recommend a minimum amount of reinforcement for shrinkage effects. This research investigates the response of thick reinforced concrete walls subjected to restraint shrinkage. The parameters studied are the thickness of reinforced concrete walls, and non-uniform distribution of shrinkage along the Length\Height and through the thickness of the wall. This study uses the non-linear finite element method to simulate the cracking behavior of the concrete and to predict tensile stresses in the reinforcement in the vicinity of Cracks. Moreover, this study investigates the influence of reinforcement ratio and compares the results with well-known concrete standards and codes of practice. It is concluded that the non-uniform shrinkage through the thickness of the wall may have significant impact on the cracking behavior of thick concrete walls. In addition, as expected, higher reinforcement ratio results in lower tensile stresses in the reinforcement. The thesis also provides guidelines for minimum reinforcement ratio.
    Thickening of the city : a city is a living organism with a complex tissue of events
    Thickening of the city : a city is a living organism with a complex tissue of events
    The industrial revolution and modernism brought dramatic changes to our cities and had a negative effect on people's social lives. This thesis considers cities as living organisms and develops systems thinking in city design with the aim of providing a vision that includes a healthier social life. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how an architecture that views cities as social and natural systems can mitigate the negative effects of the industrialized era on our cities and bring social life into our neighbourhoods.Since the primary emphasis of this thesis is on the design process and the logic behind the application of some new scientific fields, an abstract architectural formal language is employed to illustrate the design development. The result is an iterative design process that has been repeated in a variety of mediums. The process uses Five Topics from different disciplines. At each stage of the research, some of the data collected supports a distinct approach to design intervention. However, in order for the Five Topics to work at the same time, the design intervention proposes a three dimensional solution for the city instead of a two dimensional traditional plan. Consequently, the thesis design provides an abstract model for the thickening of the city. This model applies some well-studied social principles to the existing pattern of the city.
    Thickening the Public Realm: Choreographing the Interaction of the Public Realm with the Built Environment
    Thickening the Public Realm: Choreographing the Interaction of the Public Realm with the Built Environment
    The ground plane has always been the primary domain of public activities. However, cities developed under the Modernist influence demonstrate an “object-in-space” circumstance with proliferating sky-scrappers that fragment the city’s ground surface into mid-block spaces and vaguely defined plazas. The demands of motorized-transportation and private enterprise further scatter spaces for pedestrian activities across the plan, section and stratified layers of the city (subterranean or/and elevated networks).The result is an inconsistent public realm that remains from being animated by public vitality. Through the manipulation of the ground-plane, this thesis seeks to remedy such stratification. It posits that a thickening of the ground to create a three-dimensional spatial condition will amplify opportunities for social interaction within otherwise muted civic surfaces. Addressing the contemporary reality of the multiplied ground, this thesis advocates reactivating it as a thickened continuous public domain that dissolves the polarity between the built and social fabric of the city.