Theses

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  • The Use of Geographic Information Systems in the Development of a User-Pay Stormwater Utility in the Mimico Creek Watershed
    The Use of Geographic Information Systems in the Development of a User-Pay Stormwater Utility in the Mimico Creek Watershed
    User fee systems are becoming increasingly popular at local levels of government. By shifting the burden from a tax and spend, to user-pay delivery of services, local governments are able to provide and manage local services with greater efficiency and accountability. A stormwater utility concept has been created for dealing with the often-expensive construction, maintenance, upgrading, and management of storm sewers and associated infrastructure. By examining the various user-pay systems for stormwater management, local governments and researchers can make a more informed decision on whether or not it is an appropriate method to raise revenues. The collection of fees is not based on consumption, as in many other public utilities, but on the property owner's contribution to the problem. Therefore, any user-pay stormwater utility must be easily understood and defensible to the general public. As well, the utility creation, administration, and management process can be aided by the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS). Data can be easily collected, stored, and analyzed, as well as be displayed in a way that is easy to understand, not only by the managers and analysts, but by the general public as well.
    The Vibration of a Beam under a Traversing Load
    The Vibration of a Beam under a Traversing Load
    The objective of this study is to investigate the response of an Euler-Bernoulli beam under a force or mass traversing with constant velocity. Simply-supported and clamped-clamped boundary conditions are considered. The linear strain-displacement scenario is applied to both boundary conditions, while the von Kármán nonlinear scenario is applied only to the former boundary condition. The governing equation of motion is derived via the extended Hamilton's principle. Simulations are performed with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method via Matlab software. The equation of motion is first validated and then used to investigate the effects of the beam second moment of area, the magnitude of the traversing velocity, and centrifugal and gyroscopic forces.
    The Wealth of Immigrants: Expanding our Understanding of Immigrant Economic Integration in Canada
    The Wealth of Immigrants: Expanding our Understanding of Immigrant Economic Integration in Canada
    Wealth is a key feature of immigrants' successful economic integration in Canada, while more broadly contributing to their level of social inclusion and sense of self-efficacy throughout the life course. Yet, immigrant wealth has been largely ignored in the Canadian literature. Current analyses of immigrant economic integration focus primarily on labour market outcomes and growing earnings inequalities. This body of literature would be greatly enriched by strengthened understandings of immigrant savings, consumption, asset accumulation and investment. This paper thus brings together the fragmented and scarce literature related to immigrant wealth; consequently merging literatures from different fields and generating an important disucssion of the overarching issues affecting immigrant wealth in Canada. A critical review of the literature reveals that recent immigrant cohorts face increasing economic inequality compared to the Canadian born population and established immigrants, while wealth is increasingly polarized among recent immigrant groups. These trends have profound implications for the long-term economic well-being of immigrants in Canada, particularly as they reach retirement age.
    The Weight of Air: A Picture Parade of Peter Dickinson’s Buildings
    The Weight of Air: A Picture Parade of Peter Dickinson’s Buildings
    The author discusses her photographic exploration of the works of Peter Dickinson, a British born Canadian Modernist architect, who designed 75 built works, mostly in Toronto, before his death in 1961 at age 35. The author details her personal relationship with Modernism, her affinity for Dickinson’s style and the decisions made in photographing, editing, exhibiting and publishing the images in this body of work.
    The active audience of the weblog format
    The active audience of the weblog format
    Through interviews and a survey, this thesis examines blog reading along several dimensions, including motivations for reading weblogs, audience interaction with the weblog format, and the use of tools to find and keep track of blogs. It proposes a typology of 'audience activity' based on the structural features of the weblog format, which includes the navigation of, contribution to, and promotion of blog content. It identifies reading behaviours, impediments to audience activities, and the ways that readers judge the credibility of blogs. This research serves to inform the design of tools that interface with the blogosphere, and it provides a foundation to help software developers to harness different types of audience activity.
    The aesthetics of participation.
    The aesthetics of participation.
    "In this paper I would like to articulate a mode of perceptual participation, primarily an aesthetic mode, whereby humans enter into relation with the natural world around them. In order to elaborate on the mode of this participation I will draw examples from artists and thinkers that I believe have determined to make the notion of 'participation' an integral part of their work. The purpose of this paper is to situate my project in a larger tradition and theoretical framework. Over the last two years of study I have been drawn to a number of artists and thinkers who have influenced me a great deal. The common feature among them, or the relevant feature to me, has been the theme of the interaction between the self and the world, the organism and the environment, to use John Dewey's terminology, and how this interaction speaks of humanity's carnal and perceptual inherence in the world. Among these artists are Charles Olson, Jack Chambers and Stan Brakhage, and I would like to discuss their work in relation to this interactive process of self and world."--Pages 2-3.
    The air pollution contributions of a large-scale suburban development
    The air pollution contributions of a large-scale suburban development
    In 2007, Toronto Public Health found that air pollution from traffic causes as many as 440 premature deaths and 1,700 hospitalizations annually in the city. Many researchers have demonstrated the links between urban design and vehicle use, however little research has been done to address the air pollution contributions of vehicle-dependent, large-scale suburban developments. To address this deficiency, this study estimated the air pollution contributions of a 6,755 unit approved subdivision, to be built in the Town of Richmond Hill, Ontario. Using the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation's Tool for Evaluating Neighbourhood Sustainability and Transporation Canada's urban Transportation Emissions Caculator the quantity of vehicle-produced criteria air contaminants were estimated for the development in the years 2010 and 2030. The quantity of CAC emissions estimated for both 2010 and 2030 suggest that the forecast emissions from the development are non-trivial and that further study should be conducted to estimate the health impacts of this development.
    The amateur project.
    The amateur project.
    "This research project explores the dynamics of amateur theatre and its unique benefits to those who voluntarily participate in any and/or all capacities, on or back-stage."--Page 6.
    The ambrotype : a misunderstood history of a nineteenth century photographic process
    The ambrotype : a misunderstood history of a nineteenth century photographic process
    This thesis endeavors to explore the history of the ambrotype and analyze the patent controversy surrounding this nineteenth century photographic process. It investigates the origins of the term ambrotype, its physical characteristics, the cultural response to the process, and how it has been remembered historically. Court cases, photographic and popular journals, and other nineteenth century primary sources are analyzed to reveal an intriguing series of events that influenced photographic history. The ambrotype has been increasing left out of photographic texts today and this thesis seeks to understand why this process has faded from historical memory more than other early processes.
    The amenability of pre-treated source separated organic (SSO) waste for ethanol production
    The amenability of pre-treated source separated organic (SSO) waste for ethanol production
    Every year, millions of tonnes of municipal solid waste are generated in the city of Toronto from residential and non-residential sources. A large fraction of the municipal solid waste is composed of organic materials. This valuable resource has traditionally been disposed of in landfills, which in turn contributes to the pollution of the environment and the generation of green house gases. This places a great emphasis on the need for the design and implementation of more sustainable waste management practices and the adequate supportive infrastructures in order to achieve sustainability. The city of Toronto has been experiencing a huge challenge over the past few years regarding its waste problem, and having inadequate infrastructure for effective waste management practices. In the year 2000, the City of Toronto established a goal of 100% waste diversion by the year 2010 (Task Force, 2001). In the year 2005, the City of Toronto collected approximately 100,000 tonnes of source separated organic waste (SSO) from single-family households (Butts, 2005). SSO is an excellent source of fermentable carbohydrates including free sugars, starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and other degradable organic materials. However, the main obstacle is the release of some of its carbohydrates, such as cellulose and hemicellulose, from their bondage to lignin before conversion to fermentable sugars. Cellulose and hemicellulose in SSO are bonded to lignin and are not easily separated and fermented to ethanol. Therefore, for utilizing SSO as a feedstock for ethanol production, a deep understanding of the nature of lignocellulosic materials is essential in order to overcome the challenges in the biological conversion to ethanol. As an initial part of a multi-staged project, this thesis is to examine the potential of SSO for utilization as a feedstock for ethanol production. A set of experiments were conducted on SSO in order to determine the amenability of SSO to ethanol production The experimental results show a relatively high amount of carbohydrates in the SSO samples, indicating potential of SSO to be utilized as an ethanol production feedstock. Comparing result of the characteristics study with other cellulosic feedstocks, indicates that SSO has a reasonable amount of fermentable sugars and can be utilized for ethanol production instead of using other cellulosic feedstocks such as herbaceous energy crops. A technology for the biological conversion of SSO to ethanol was proposed based on the current techniques and the results from the characterization study on SSO. It is foreseen that the findings of this study will enhance the overall understanding of the nature of SSO and the possibility of using it for ethanol production, and provide technical data and information for the decision makers in the assessment of the potential of SSO for ethanol production.
    The application of an early-warning biomonitoring system (EWBS) in a Canadian context
    The application of an early-warning biomonitoring system (EWBS) in a Canadian context
    A nationwide jurisdictional analysis of drinking water frameworks was conducted to identify the political backdrop for the integration of the EWBS. Canada demonstrates no consistency in drinking water regulations and policies for EWBS application. While it is not possible for all specific contaminants to be monitored, the EWBS has the potential to effectively detect classes of contaminants applicable nationwide. A case study site was investigated for potential use of the EWBS. The general finding indicated that, despite having an advanced plant, unpredicted spills from upstream industries will continue to represent potential hazards for Walpole Island First Nation. Copper was identified as a contaminant of concern for the study site and was applied in behavioural bioassays using Daphnia magna. Three responses were examined upon exposure to varying concentrations of copper and results indicated change in swimming height as the most sensitive response for utility in an EWBS, followed by immobility.
    The application of best available technology in dealing with Ontario's waste electric and electronic equipment : a case study
    The application of best available technology in dealing with Ontario's waste electric and electronic equipment : a case study
    This study seeks to inquire into the impacts of pursuing a comprehensive Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) program similar to the system in the European Union in the Province of Ontario. O. Reg. 393/04 WEEE seeks to establish a weight-based system of recycling end-of-life (EOL) electronics. BAT revenue projections would make for a profitable endeavour across the first five years of the program, with reductions in pollution and operating costs from primary ore refinement. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the BAT scheme profitability exceeds the "do nothing" option across all price ranges (including worst case scenarios), while, at the same time, results in increased susceptibility to market volatility. A cost-effectiveness study showed that the investment in a new integrated smelting operation would still be more cost-effective than the "do nothing" option. This study points to the need for further research into market incentives regarding the amount of collected electronic waste.