Theses

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  • The utilization of the freshwater invertebrates hyalella azteca and daphnia magna for use in assessing potential endocrine distruption in aquatic systems
    The utilization of the freshwater invertebrates hyalella azteca and daphnia magna for use in assessing potential endocrine distruption in aquatic systems
    The chronic physiological effects of the compounds Atrazine, Tributyltin and 17 α-ethinylestradiol were tested on the freshwater aquatic organisms; Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna were exposed to a series of conditions designed to minimize the parthenogenetic cycle of and maximize the sexual cycle resulting in the formation of males and ephippia to be used as a screening assay for potentially endocrine disrupting chemicals. Hyalella azteca were exposed to the three contaminants during a 42-day chronic toxicity assay and analyzed for morphological changes to male secondary gnathopods, female brood pouches and gender ratios. It was found that atrazine, tributyltin and 17 α-ethinylestradiol had no significant effects on the gender ratios or secondary sexual physiology of Hylalla azteca.
    The valuation of a natural gas-fired power plant with multiple turbines using clean spark spread and weather options
    The valuation of a natural gas-fired power plant with multiple turbines using clean spark spread and weather options
    Assessing the value of a power plant is an important issue for plant owners and prospective buyers. In a deregulated market, an owner has the option to operate the plant when the revenue from selling the electricity is higher than the cost of operating the plant. This option is known as the spark spread option. Under emission restrictions, when the carbon cost is deducted from the spark spread, the option is named as the clean spark spread option. This thesis presents an analysis on the spark spread and clean spark spread option based valuation methods for a power plant with multiple gas turbines having different input–output characteristics, emission rates, and capacities. Electricity, natural gas and carbon allowance prices are assumed to follow mean–reverting processes. Results demonstrate that CO2 allowance cost reduces the expected plant value, while the flexibility of switching among turbines adds value to the power plant. Weather also affects the power plant operation. This thesis also presents a valuation model for a power plant integrating spark spread and weather options. A cooler winter drawing more electricity could generate a higher payoff for the plant owner. A warmer winter, however, could lead to a lower payoff. An owner holding a long position in a temperature–based put option could exercise the option when the winter is milder. The exercise is triggered by the drop of heating degree days below a strike degree day. The number of weather contracts to buy is determined by minimizing the variance of the total payoff. Pricing of the weather option is calculated based on the mean–reverting behavior of temperature. Results demonstrate that the integrating weather option along with spark spread option adds value to the downward spark spread option based valuation of the plant in a warmer winter. A comparison of temperature modeling approaches with an aim to pricing weather option is also investigated. Regime–switching models generated from a combination of different underlying processes are utilized to determine the expected heating and cooling degree days. Weather option prices are then calculated based on a range of strike heating degree days.
    The vertical suburbs of Sheppard: can mixed-use communities thrive along the Sheppard subway corridor?
    The vertical suburbs of Sheppard: can mixed-use communities thrive along the Sheppard subway corridor?
    Properly planned mixed-use developments are recognized as an excellent way to achieve smart growth objectives such as intensification, along with creating attractive and vibrant communities by providing various uses within one development. It is important to understand that although their underlying concepts entail high levels of urban livability, many barriers exist that make it difficult to develop mixed-use development. This paper uses the case study of the Sheppard subway corridor in Toronto, Ontario to understand why large scale mixed-use developments have not yet emerged in an area that seems appropriate for this development type. The paper uses a multi-method approach including a literature review and interviews to understand the barriers that exist within the designated study area. What emerges is that there is no one silver bullet to achieving large scale mixed-use developments. The paper concludes with a series of recommendations that may assist in producing a healthier environment for mixed-use developments to succeed.
    The viability of pronatalism as a response to population growth decline in the Canadian context
    The viability of pronatalism as a response to population growth decline in the Canadian context
    A decrease in fertility over the last thirty years has led to projections for population growth decline and possible population decline in the near future. Although immigration has traditionally been seen as a source of growth for Canada, current demographic trends suggest a more comprehensive approach may be needed. A pronatalist policy may help offset the long term effects of population decline if used in tandem with increased immigration and increased support for arriving immigrants. In order to be successful such a policy would need to address both the direct and indirect barriers to fertility as experienced by women and families while encouraging increased labour force participation by women.
    The visual construction of the individual education plan and parent involvement
    The visual construction of the individual education plan and parent involvement
    In educative practices, planning documents play an important role in communicating the educational needs of students with disabilities. The Individual Education Plan (IEP) is the main document that facilitates and enables accommodation for students with special education requirements. The IEP describes a student’s individual learning outcomes and services based on his or her level of educational performance (Griangreco, 1994). Research on the IEP work process has demonstrated that it can be confusing, frustrating, or ineffective in many cases (Ng, 2013). By taking the parents’ perspective and experience in the creation of the IEP, one can seek to understand why this can be such a taxing communicative process. As the literature can attest, there is great emphasis on parent involvement and positive outcomes in the IEP work process. However, parent input does not appear to be of great value or importance within the IEP document. In order to address the problem of poor parent involvement in the creation of the IEP, the IEP document template must be carefully analyzed. By taking the perspective of the parents in the IEP work process, the following research questions will be addressed: Primary Research Question • How do the textual and visual constructions of the IEP document elicit parent involvement in individual education planning? When analyzing IEP documents, the visual construction and the layout can be examined in order to understand why parent involvement may be limited. Written language can be analyzed by semiotic theory, which studies a system of signs, including a sign, signifier, and signified (Warner, 1990). Semiotic analysis questions what constitutes representation and the use of signs and sign systems to make messages (Nuessel, 2012). Thus, using semiotic analysis can help to understand how parents perceive the IEP document in practice. By gaining a richer understanding of the IEP template, one can hypothesize how parental involvement is communicated in the IEP work process. In considering the composition of a document, effective design enables the reader to understand information by visually grouping elements into units and indicating order through visual hierarchy (Martin, 1989). By referring to the document design and layout of a textual document, one can assess and interpret cues such as order, proximity, visual hierarchy, and visual prominence. Further, through the implementation of a semiotic content analysis of IEP templates employed across Ontario school boards, the notion of parent involvement can be better understood.
    The visual politics of success and solidarity a case study of Chris Niedenthal's photography from The People's Republic of Poland 1978-1982
    The visual politics of success and solidarity a case study of Chris Niedenthal's photography from The People's Republic of Poland 1978-1982
    This thesis focuses on photographs from the Black Star Collection by photojournalist Chris Niedenthal, who did freelance assignments in Poland for Newsweek, Time Magazine, and Der Spiegel during the 1970s and 1980s. By looking closely at Niedenthal’s work, this thesis explores how these photographs respond to and engage with the rising tension in the People’s Republic of Poland (PRL) between the years 1978 -1982. The purpose of this investigation is to study the techniques Niedenthal devised to photograph Poland during a volatile time. Through a comparative analysis of selected images from the Black Star Collection, this thesis considers two phases of Niedenthal’s work in Poland, and examines both the way Chris Niedenthal’s photography attempts to negotiate the restrictions imposed by a totalitarian political system that sought to control its self-image, and how his approach to photography adapted to the rise of the Solidarity Trade Union and imposition of Martial Law in Poland.
    The voice and the void: the scream in 1950s American science fiction film
    The voice and the void: the scream in 1950s American science fiction film
    In the United States, science fiction film rose to prominence as a critically recognized genre in the 1950s, a decade fraught with cultural complications and contradictions and also inspired by optimism and upward trajectory. Warren Susman characterizes the period as one marked by a "dual consciousness," a time when "the fulfillment of our sweetest desires [led] inevitably to the brink of danger and damnation"; the fifties, he writes, was an age of anxiety as much as it was a time of abundance, freedom, and possibility (30). For historian David Halberstam, while a retrospective examination of the decade suggests to some a "slower, almost languid" pace, social ferment "was beginning just beneath this placid surface" (ix). Throughout the decade, notions of national security played out in conflicting ways that traversed both the public and private spheres. Science fiction, a genre that coincided with massive industry changes that saw the development of a sizable low-budget, teen-oriented independent sector, resonated deeply with such opposing and anxiety-laden articulations of both public and private security. While most previous discussions of the genre tend to focus on such concerns in their public dimension (particularly as related to political unease during the Cold War), what follows will address sci-fi' s depiction of anxieties in that other, more private realm of American society, particularly in relation to the expression of gender, sexuality, and desire. Cold War politics, the postwar consumer boom, re-entrenchment of family values and suburban home life, and industry upheavals in Hollywood are all important for understanding what is now thought of as the golden age of American science fiction film. These socio-political factors contextualize the genre's rise to prominence, its defining stylistic and thematic characteristics, and its treatment of gendered subjectivity. As we will see, while some science fiction films of the 1950s engaged or challenged cultural rhetoric related to expected norms of gendered behaviour, for the most part these films upheld the era's return to more traditional gender roles for men and women, an observation which has been taken up in the critical literature, particularly within feminist film scholarship. However, within this body of films exists a common and recurring convention that has been largely neglected by science fiction film scholars, one that warrants further study due to its implications for understanding the return to domesticity in the American postwar period. This filmic convention is the scream, a visual and aural articulation of fear expressed mostly by women (but also, and just as importantly, by men). Far from being a mere cheap gimmick employed by filmmakers alongside special effects and insatiable monsters, the scream provides valuable insight into the domestic ideologies that prevailed during the 1950s.
    The voices of South Asian immigrant parents : how they conceptualize, negotiate and develop relationships with their children's schools
    The voices of South Asian immigrant parents : how they conceptualize, negotiate and develop relationships with their children's schools
    This study finds out how South Asian immigrant parents conceptualize, negotiate and develop their relationship with their children's schools. The qualitative analysis of interview data collected from nine newcomer parents provides an insight into the processes involved in conceptualizing, developing and negotiating parent-school relationships. This study is important as current trends in immigration reveal that the South Asian population is the largest visible minority group in Canada. Findings show that most immigrant parents are heavily invested in their children's education and go to great lengths to become acquainted with the new system they encounter. Implications for including immigrant parents in their children’s education are discussed.
    The xograph®: an investigation of parallax panoramagrams and earlier autostereoscopic methods
    The xograph®: an investigation of parallax panoramagrams and earlier autostereoscopic methods
    Introduced by Cowles Communications and Visual Panographics in 1964, the xograph® or parallax panoramagram, was the first lenticular, autostereoscopic, photomechanical object created for the mass media. Publications such as LOOK magazine and Venture: A Traveler’s Guide frequently distributed xographs® during the 1960s and 1970s, after which time, the xograph® began to disappear from mass publications. The thesis provides a detailed account of the history of three-dimensional photographic techniques and places the xograph® within this history. It addresses the contributions and collaboration of Arthur Rothstein, Marvin Whatmore, Visual Panographics and Cowles Communications in the creation, production and dissemination of xographs®. The thesis then describes xograph® production process and the results of an electron microscopic analysis of an xograph® made to determine its physical properties . The conclusion offers suggestions for preservation guidelines for these fascinating objects.
    Theatre of the mind: podcasting and public health communication -- a pilot project.
    Theatre of the mind: podcasting and public health communication -- a pilot project.
    This project explores how podcasting could be developed as a strategy for narrative self-representation as a means of exploring the broader sociocultural context of specific health issues such as HIV I AIDS or methamphetamine addiction. The aim of the project is to understand how podcasting can be used to aid health agencies in determining the social context of behaviors that in turn can inform strategic communication programs.
    Theme and structure: key elements in the criteria for excellence in journalism
    Theme and structure: key elements in the criteria for excellence in journalism
    Journalism it is often claimed, is a social instrument that is the chief means by which citizens become informed and equipped to be active participants in democratic life. As Kovach expresses this point "the role of the press since its beginning has been to help the people overcome the scarcity of information upon which they could make thoughtful and informed decisions" (Kovach http://www.concernedjournalists.orglnode/492). The higher the standard of journalism, therefore, the more effectively it can fulfill its role. However, questions arise of precisely what is meant by standards of excellence in journalism and furthermore, what are the criteria by which it can be measured? As an area of research, criteria for journalistic excellence remain difficult to define and challenging to measure and quantify. Since industry awards programs devoted to recognizing the best in journalism would reasonably be expected to stipulate their understanding of excellence, they would appear a logical place to begin the task of investigating what constitutes journalistic excellence. Shapiro et al., however, have reported that "many [awards] programs simply don't have judging guidelines, while others consist mostly of lists of terms, without explanation or illustration" (7). Without evidence of excellence criteria being available from those industry programs and institutions whose professional role it is to recognize excellence, scholars have had to broach the subject in different ways. Some studies devoted to the goal of naming concrete characteristics of excellence have sought to define "excellence" by interviewing judges, journalists and newspaper editors. These have resulted in individually subjective answers. Other research initiatives have measured journalistic writing by equating quality with conformity to traditional journalistic standards such as "accuracy" and "impartiality" (Bogart 45). Like the subjective opinion of industry professionals, any list of standards in journalism is potentially elusive because of the manifold variables that influence conclusive final judgment. For some industry professionals though. These references to the more enduring standards of the profession "would be seen ... not as criteria of excellence ... but as bare minimum requirements" (Shapiro et al. 6). Shapiro et al. advanced the understanding of "excellence" by reinforcing the presence of these traditional journalistic standards, and by demonstrating that the weighting each judge placed on these criteria was subject to individual preference. While the weighting of criteria of excellence may be subjective, this study's findings indicate that there are indeed commonalities among award winning articles, and these relate to two main variables: theme and structure.
    Theoretical And Experimental Investigation Of Thermodiffusion (Soret Effect) In A Porous Medium
    Theoretical And Experimental Investigation Of Thermodiffusion (Soret Effect) In A Porous Medium
    Thermodiffusion (the Soret effect) is important for the study of compositional variation in hydrocarbon reservoirs. The development of research history, theoretical modeling and applications to multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures is included in this work. The Firoozabadi model appears to be an appropriate model for thermodiffusion estimation for hydrocarbon mixtures, and it is derived based on the equation of entropy generation rate and four postulates in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Two equations of state, the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (PR-EoS) and the volume translated Peng Robinson Equation of State (vt-PR-EoS), have been used to estimate the thermodynamic properties of mixtures.In this work, different cases are presented: first, a new thermodiffusion cell designed to perform high pressure measurements in a porous medium has been validated at atmospheric pressure. Two systems were investigated, (1) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphtalene (THN) and n-dodecane (nC12), and (2) isobutylbenzene (IBB) and n-dodecane at 50% of mass fraction. Experimental results revealed an excellent agreement with benchmark values and a good agreement with theoretical data. Second, the thermal expansion and concentration expansion coefficients and the viscosity of mixtures are necessary properties for the determination of the thermodiffusion coefficient. The densities of binaries of nC12, IBB and THN for pressures from 0.1 to 20 MPa and a temperature centred on 25⁰ were measured. By an derivative method, the thermal expansion and concentration expansion coefficients were determined. Viscosities were directly measured using a high pressure high temperature viscometer.Finally, the thermosolutal convections of two ternary mixtures, methane (C1), n-butane (nC4) and n-dodecane (nC12) at a pressure of 35.0 MPa and nC12, THN and IBB at atmospheric pressure, in a porous medium, were investigated over a wide range of permeability. The effect of permeability in the homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media on fluid transport was studied with consideration of thermodiffusion and molecular diffusion. In the analysis of the homogeneous porous medium, it was found that, for permeability below 300 mD, the thermodiffusion for both mixtures was dominant; and above this level, buoyancy convection became the dominant mechanism. Also, the viscosity was found to influence the evaluation of the molecular and thermodiffusion coefficients. In the case of heterogeneous porous medium, the impact of permeability ratio on the composition of the mixture components, velocity in the porous medium and on the separation ratio was investigated. It was found that the heterogeneity of porous medium has a significant influence on the composition of the mixture components.