Theses

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  • The voices of South Asian immigrant parents : how they conceptualize, negotiate and develop relationships with their children's schools
    The voices of South Asian immigrant parents : how they conceptualize, negotiate and develop relationships with their children's schools
    This study finds out how South Asian immigrant parents conceptualize, negotiate and develop their relationship with their children's schools. The qualitative analysis of interview data collected from nine newcomer parents provides an insight into the processes involved in conceptualizing, developing and negotiating parent-school relationships. This study is important as current trends in immigration reveal that the South Asian population is the largest visible minority group in Canada. Findings show that most immigrant parents are heavily invested in their children's education and go to great lengths to become acquainted with the new system they encounter. Implications for including immigrant parents in their children’s education are discussed.
    The xograph®: an investigation of parallax panoramagrams and earlier autostereoscopic methods
    The xograph®: an investigation of parallax panoramagrams and earlier autostereoscopic methods
    Introduced by Cowles Communications and Visual Panographics in 1964, the xograph® or parallax panoramagram, was the first lenticular, autostereoscopic, photomechanical object created for the mass media. Publications such as LOOK magazine and Venture: A Traveler’s Guide frequently distributed xographs® during the 1960s and 1970s, after which time, the xograph® began to disappear from mass publications. The thesis provides a detailed account of the history of three-dimensional photographic techniques and places the xograph® within this history. It addresses the contributions and collaboration of Arthur Rothstein, Marvin Whatmore, Visual Panographics and Cowles Communications in the creation, production and dissemination of xographs®. The thesis then describes xograph® production process and the results of an electron microscopic analysis of an xograph® made to determine its physical properties . The conclusion offers suggestions for preservation guidelines for these fascinating objects.
    Theatre of the mind: podcasting and public health communication -- a pilot project.
    Theatre of the mind: podcasting and public health communication -- a pilot project.
    This project explores how podcasting could be developed as a strategy for narrative self-representation as a means of exploring the broader sociocultural context of specific health issues such as HIV I AIDS or methamphetamine addiction. The aim of the project is to understand how podcasting can be used to aid health agencies in determining the social context of behaviors that in turn can inform strategic communication programs.
    Theme and structure: key elements in the criteria for excellence in journalism
    Theme and structure: key elements in the criteria for excellence in journalism
    Journalism it is often claimed, is a social instrument that is the chief means by which citizens become informed and equipped to be active participants in democratic life. As Kovach expresses this point "the role of the press since its beginning has been to help the people overcome the scarcity of information upon which they could make thoughtful and informed decisions" (Kovach http://www.concernedjournalists.orglnode/492). The higher the standard of journalism, therefore, the more effectively it can fulfill its role. However, questions arise of precisely what is meant by standards of excellence in journalism and furthermore, what are the criteria by which it can be measured? As an area of research, criteria for journalistic excellence remain difficult to define and challenging to measure and quantify. Since industry awards programs devoted to recognizing the best in journalism would reasonably be expected to stipulate their understanding of excellence, they would appear a logical place to begin the task of investigating what constitutes journalistic excellence. Shapiro et al., however, have reported that "many [awards] programs simply don't have judging guidelines, while others consist mostly of lists of terms, without explanation or illustration" (7). Without evidence of excellence criteria being available from those industry programs and institutions whose professional role it is to recognize excellence, scholars have had to broach the subject in different ways. Some studies devoted to the goal of naming concrete characteristics of excellence have sought to define "excellence" by interviewing judges, journalists and newspaper editors. These have resulted in individually subjective answers. Other research initiatives have measured journalistic writing by equating quality with conformity to traditional journalistic standards such as "accuracy" and "impartiality" (Bogart 45). Like the subjective opinion of industry professionals, any list of standards in journalism is potentially elusive because of the manifold variables that influence conclusive final judgment. For some industry professionals though. These references to the more enduring standards of the profession "would be seen ... not as criteria of excellence ... but as bare minimum requirements" (Shapiro et al. 6). Shapiro et al. advanced the understanding of "excellence" by reinforcing the presence of these traditional journalistic standards, and by demonstrating that the weighting each judge placed on these criteria was subject to individual preference. While the weighting of criteria of excellence may be subjective, this study's findings indicate that there are indeed commonalities among award winning articles, and these relate to two main variables: theme and structure.
    Theoretical And Experimental Investigation Of Thermodiffusion (Soret Effect) In A Porous Medium
    Theoretical And Experimental Investigation Of Thermodiffusion (Soret Effect) In A Porous Medium
    Thermodiffusion (the Soret effect) is important for the study of compositional variation in hydrocarbon reservoirs. The development of research history, theoretical modeling and applications to multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures is included in this work. The Firoozabadi model appears to be an appropriate model for thermodiffusion estimation for hydrocarbon mixtures, and it is derived based on the equation of entropy generation rate and four postulates in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Two equations of state, the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (PR-EoS) and the volume translated Peng Robinson Equation of State (vt-PR-EoS), have been used to estimate the thermodynamic properties of mixtures.In this work, different cases are presented: first, a new thermodiffusion cell designed to perform high pressure measurements in a porous medium has been validated at atmospheric pressure. Two systems were investigated, (1) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphtalene (THN) and n-dodecane (nC12), and (2) isobutylbenzene (IBB) and n-dodecane at 50% of mass fraction. Experimental results revealed an excellent agreement with benchmark values and a good agreement with theoretical data. Second, the thermal expansion and concentration expansion coefficients and the viscosity of mixtures are necessary properties for the determination of the thermodiffusion coefficient. The densities of binaries of nC12, IBB and THN for pressures from 0.1 to 20 MPa and a temperature centred on 25⁰ were measured. By an derivative method, the thermal expansion and concentration expansion coefficients were determined. Viscosities were directly measured using a high pressure high temperature viscometer.Finally, the thermosolutal convections of two ternary mixtures, methane (C1), n-butane (nC4) and n-dodecane (nC12) at a pressure of 35.0 MPa and nC12, THN and IBB at atmospheric pressure, in a porous medium, were investigated over a wide range of permeability. The effect of permeability in the homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media on fluid transport was studied with consideration of thermodiffusion and molecular diffusion. In the analysis of the homogeneous porous medium, it was found that, for permeability below 300 mD, the thermodiffusion for both mixtures was dominant; and above this level, buoyancy convection became the dominant mechanism. Also, the viscosity was found to influence the evaluation of the molecular and thermodiffusion coefficients. In the case of heterogeneous porous medium, the impact of permeability ratio on the composition of the mixture components, velocity in the porous medium and on the separation ratio was investigated. It was found that the heterogeneity of porous medium has a significant influence on the composition of the mixture components.
    Theoretical And Predicted Performance Of Self-Drying Roof Enclosures Throughout North America
    Theoretical And Predicted Performance Of Self-Drying Roof Enclosures Throughout North America
    Roof enclosures traditionally have the largest litigation potential in the construction industry due to the complexities in the design and application. Development of a self-drying roof enclosure would potentially minimize the litigation and provide the additional benefits of increased resiliency, reduced financial burden for building owners, and minimal impact on the environment. Past studies have shown that the self-drying roof enclosures are viable, however, they must meet several performance characteristics. Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed six characteristics required to obtain a functional self-drying roof enclosure. New roofing materials on the market allow for the effective drying potential of enclosures when they become wet. WUFI 6.1 6.1 hygrothermal models were developed to determine if the theory of self-drying roof enclosures is valid in all ASHRAE climatic zones. Effective theoretical self-drying roof enclosure designs are highlighted for potential effectiveness spanning all climatic zones in North America.
    Theoretical analysis of acoustic emission signal propagation in fluid-filled pipes
    Theoretical analysis of acoustic emission signal propagation in fluid-filled pipes
    The theoretical investigation of acoustical wave propagation in cylindrical layered media is the main interest of our research. The propagation of wire break or slip related acoustical signal in the buried water-filled Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe (PCCP) is taken as a specific application.The PCCPs are widely used for potable-and waste-water distribution and transmission systems, which are generally located below the surface ground. Therefore, it is difficult to inspect or detect the damage caused by the wire-break or slip related events in the pipeline. In current practice, the acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system is used for random examination of prestressing wires by excavating or internal inspecting of the pipe walls, which is based on field data analysis. This gives only the localized knowledge of wire break or slip, which can be misleading, underestimated of the extent of corroded areas, deterioration of wire failure, due to the system resonance, acoustoelasic effect, loading effect, etc. There is no systematic theoretical analysis from the acoustic signal generation to propagation related to these effects, and hence, a common problem in AD technology is to extract the physical features of the ideal events, so as to detect the similar signals. The theoretical analysis is important to understand how the AE signal is generated by the leak, wire break or slip related events and how the path characteristics, excitation frequency, and modes of propagation physically affect the signal propagation. For this purpose, and acoustical model is developed from the Navier's equation of motion. This can simulate vibrating AE signal propagation through the fluid-filled PCCP. The interaction of this propagation with the pipe structure is modeled by using Newton's law of motion in equilibrium. The principle of virtual work is used to develop the fluid-structure interaction. In this work, the impact of the path on the spectral profiles of the vibrating AE signals in different locations throughout the pipes were investigated for low and high frequency excitation signals. At low frequency, there is only plane wave propagation, therefore the stoneley or tube mode analysis is used for this purpose. The tube wave effects on the acoustical wave propagation were observed from this analysis. At high frequencies, there also exist rayleigh or shear modes which exhibit oscillatory amplitudes in the fluid and a decaying amplitude in the pipe and the surrounding medium. The eigenfrequency and the modal analysis is used in this case. From the analyses, the phase velocity, group velocity, tube wave velocity, system resonance frequencies, cut-off frequencies were observed. The high frequency analysis has some special advantage over low frequency signal. This can provide an earlier indication of incipient faults, which is important to detect the AE event in early stage of pipe deterioration. Moreover, it was established that the frequency of propagating AE signal in the pressurizing fluid medium ranges up to 30kHz. Therefore, it is important to investigate the wave propagation of AE signal propagation through the fluid column inside the pipe within the range of sonic/ultrasonic frequency. The acoustic wave propagation in fluid-filled PCCP of various radius, stiffness and thickness of the pipe as well as different types of surrounding medium, is obtained by applying a numerical Finite Element Method (FEM). Finally, the results are compared with available analytical solutions. The proposed model is independent of sources, dimensions and medium characteristics. Therefore, it can be used for the analysis of acoustic wave propagation through any type of cylindrical shells immersed or surrounded by different types of medium. The current analysis, therefore, has fundamental importance in many applications.
    Theoretical and Experimental Study of Single-Needle Thermal Conductivity Probe
    Theoretical and Experimental Study of Single-Needle Thermal Conductivity Probe
    The thermal conductivities of materials (km) are important in many fields such as agriculture, mining and biomedical engineering. For example, better knowing the km values of biomaterials can be useful in radiofrequency ablation (RFA) to treat and/or cure tumor and cancer cells (Liu et al. [3]). Thermal conductivity probes (TCPs) have proven to be very attractive in obtaining relatively accurate kkm values due to their inline measurements, inexpensiveness, portability, and versatility.However, due to the vast number of designs and applications of TCPs, sources of errors with using the probes are diverse. As a result, in this thesis, possible sources of errors in TCPs (single needle) were investigated. The sources include probe sizes, heating powers, sampling media, selection of TCP materials, location of the thermocouple, axial heat conduction, thermal contact resistance, initiating time t0, decision to use heating or cooling period for km calculations and tolerance in the thermal properties of epoxy.
    There's No Boys' and Girls' [Sports], They Share : Young Girls' Experiences With Team Sports
    There's No Boys' and Girls' [Sports], They Share : Young Girls' Experiences With Team Sports
    Research has identified many benefits of participating in team sports. These examinations have discovered that girls are less likely to participate in team sports than boys. This study examines the reasons why girls do or do not participate in team sports. In this qualitative study, girls aged 6 to 9 were interviewed about their experiences that have either led them to participate in team sports or not participate in team sports. Through this study it was discovered that the family and peer group play a major role in influencing team sports participation in young girls. I found that the interviewed girls believe that boys are more successful in team sports, that sports skills are gendered and there are many ways to improve team sports participation for other young girls. Through the identification of factors which encourage or discourage participation in team sports, practitioners will be better informed on how they may support girls in participating in team sports.
    Thermal Analysis of a Double Glazed Window with a Between-Panes Pleated Blind
    Thermal Analysis of a Double Glazed Window with a Between-Panes Pleated Blind
    A simplified two-dimensional numerical model of a window with a between-panes pleated blind has been developed using commercial computational fluid dynamics software. Knowledge of the effect of blinds on the free convection is important for understanding and predicting the impact of shading devices on the overall thermal performance of a window. Numerical results have been obtained for three fill gases (air, argon and krypton) and several blind geometries over the Rayleigh number range 10³ [less than or equal to]Ra[less than or equal to]10[to the exponent of 5]. The results show that pleated blinds can have a strong effect on window thermal performance. In addition, it has been shown that the data from a convection-only model can be combined with a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate the overall U-value of the enclosure. Using this procedure, the convection data can be applied to a window/blind assembly with arbitrary radiation parameters.
    Thermal And Optical Performance Of Granular Aerogel Glazing After Accelerated Ageing
    Thermal And Optical Performance Of Granular Aerogel Glazing After Accelerated Ageing
    The glazing portion of a window has dual but conflicting functions where it is required to provide views to the outside, but also have good thermal resistance. Glazing is usually one of the weak points in the thermal envelope and tends to age quicker and to a higher severity. The combination of granular aerogel inside a glazing cavity is still relatively new product, but could offer both great thermal and optical performance. Currently available durability data for granular aerogel glazing is scarce. Accelerated ageing was used to generate real life equivalent stresses of 13.5‐74 years by exposing a set of samples to several climatic conditions. The center of glass U‐value increased by a maximum of 4% after accelerated ageing in the oven and the temperature cycling machine. A maximum reduction of 211% was measured in the visible transmittance after accelerated ageing climatic and humidity chambers.
    Thermal Degradation Of High Molecular Weight Polyethylene To Obtain Low Molecular Weight Polyethylene Wax
    Thermal Degradation Of High Molecular Weight Polyethylene To Obtain Low Molecular Weight Polyethylene Wax
    The thermal degradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) to low molecular weight waxes (Mw of ~700) were carried out to study the reaction kinetics of the degradation mechanism under various degradation conditions. The properties of the products produced under the various degradation conditions were also studied to understand the relationship between process and product properties. Thermal degradations were carried over a range of temperatures in two types of reactors, a resin kettle purged with nitrogen in which volatiles were allowed to distill-off, and under pressure in an unvented Parr reactor. These reactors were also operated with and without catalyst to understand the effect that catalyst may have on the degradation kinetics and product. Wax products generated under atmospheric conditions without catalyst had lower polydispersity but took longer to get to the final molecular weight. Catalyzed reactions under atmospheric conditions had higher polydispersity and produced lower molecular weight products that were easily distilled off as volatile liquids and gasses. Pressure reactions with catalyst produced the lowest molecular weight products, however polydispersity was high. Pressure reactions without catalysts produced waxy materials with the lowest polydispersity.