Theses

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  • Traversing The Lane Space
    Traversing The Lane Space
    Detouring between buildings subverts well-worn paths and reveals untapped space designated to Toronto’s extensive laneway network. Exploratory walks followed by creative transcription of the findings capture fragments that would otherwise go unnoticed. By harnessing new ways of reading the lane space, the proposed project envisions a lane-building-street hybrid, rich with urban retreats and alternate pedestrian paths. Through the reinterpretation of an existing laneway block as a catalyst, the scheme explores strategies that grant this hybrid space to curious strollers, challenging highly-regulated and standardized street space as the primary means of moving through the contemporary city. These strategies invigorate the role of architecture in enhancing the quality of urban life, rewarding pedestrians with access to the city through new routes, expanded public realm, and countless discoveries.
    Traversing physical barriers and activating social voids
    Traversing physical barriers and activating social voids
    The following body of work is a culmination of theoretical analysis and design research that emerges on the recognition that within Toronto’s priority neighbourhoods exists both physical and social barriers that weaken community ties and social resiliency. The physical barriers it refers to are the city’s infrastructure and natural geographic features that commonly divide such neighbourhoods and create mobility issues for those residing within. At the same time they fracture social connections. This thesis investigates environmental psychology to better understand the relationship between the physical environment and its effect of human behaviour so that architecture can be conceived of as designed environments that indirectly influence the mood and behaviours of those occupying the space. The outcome is a complex system of applied architectural strategies that respond to physical, social, and psychological influences regarding the individual and the built environment. Collectively, the design strategies aim to reduce physical barriers, activate social voids, and create environments that enhance social behaviour among socially hesitant individuals and the development of community ties. This becomes a larger internal issue as the majority of the population within priority neighbourhoods being new immigrants and visible minorities share mutual feelings of social isolation, segregation and discomfort
    Treatment of leachate generated from bioreactor landfills
    Treatment of leachate generated from bioreactor landfills
    Leachate generated from Municipal landfill sites is usually contaminated with organic compounds as well as inorganic pollutants. Leachate needs treatment before being entered to any receiving water body. It is desirable that the leachate should be treated on-site efficiently and cost effectively, particularly for small and remote landfills. The existing processes used for the treatment of leachate often exhibit problems related to treatment time, size, and cost. This study focuses on the development of a low cost treatment method to resolve the existing problems related to on-site leachate treatment and handling. The developed method involved the treatment of given leachate in an anaerobic lagoon with Fenton's reagents followed by aerobic lagoon. The leachate used for the treatment was generated from four solid waste bioreactor landfill models (anaerobic and aerobic) that have high moisture content and high organic concentration of solid waste. The effect of pH control and the different concentrations of Ferrous Sulphate (FeSO₄) and Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) on anaerobic and aerobic lagoons performance were examined in the treatment process. It has been observed that the Fenton's reagents with the ratio of 1:1 have a great influence on COD reduction. The maximum COD reductions with pH in the ranges of 6-7 and 3-4 along with Fenton's reagents have been observed to be 6% (39130 mg/l to 36450 mg/l) and 32% (39130 mg/l to 26430 mg/l) respectively. The overall COD concentration reduction using the proposed treatment was observed to be 50% during the whole treatment process.
    Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro using ultrasound, microbubbles, and gemicitabine
    Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro using ultrasound, microbubbles, and gemicitabine
    Ultrasonically stimulated microbubbles can enhance the localized delivery and cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy drugs to cells by transient permeabilization of cell membranes in a process called sonoporation. However, there is insufficient data investigating whether ultrasound and microbubbles (USMB) enhances the delivery and cytotoxicity of the nucleoside analog (NA) gemcitabine. To address this gap in the literature, cancer cells were sonicated using low frequency ultrasound in combination with Definity® microbubbles in the presence of NAs. Viability analyses show that gemcitabine in combination with USMB additively enhanced cell death, suggesting that these two therapies mediate cell death independent of one another. This was confirmed when USMB treatment did not enhance (nor impair) the retention of a radiolabeled NA molecule. Altogether, these data suggest that the laws of diffusion forcing small molecules across a barrier cannot solely describe the efficacy of sonoporation; there are obviously important biological factors specific to the molecule intended to be delivered to consider as well.
    Trends in public attention to the environment from 1956 to 2005
    Trends in public attention to the environment from 1956 to 2005
    A continuous measure of public environmental concern was created using the appearance of environmental content in mass-circulation magazines between January 1956 and December 2005 to investigate Downs' "Issue Attention Cycle", the public response to physical and non-physical episodic events, and the relationship between sectors of environmental concern. The results indicated that environmental concern follows discernible cycles peaking in 1970, 1990, and 2000. Each cycle exhibits an asymmetrical decrease in concern resulting in a ratcheting of environmental concern upwards over the study period. A multivariate regression analysis was used to test for physical and non-physical episodic events was not found to be a strong predictor of environmental concern. The dynamics of these cycles of environmental concern will have far-reaching implications for policy makers.
    Triply Coupled Bending-Bending-Torsion Vibrational Analysis of Rotating Beams Using Fem and Dynamic Finite Element Formulation
    Triply Coupled Bending-Bending-Torsion Vibrational Analysis of Rotating Beams Using Fem and Dynamic Finite Element Formulation
    This research presents the numerical analysis of the triply coupled flap-wise, cord-wise and torsional vibrations of flexible rotating blades. Euler-Bernoulli bending and St. Venant torsion beam theories are considered to derive the governing differential equations of motion. Based on Finite Element Methodology (FEM), the cubic "Hermite" shape functions are implemented where the solution of the equations results in a linear engine problem. Then, the Dynamic (frequency dependent) Trigonometric Shape Functions (DISF's) for beam's uncoupled displacements are derived. The application of the Dynamic Finite Element (DFE) approach to the solution of the governing equations is then presented. The DFE formulation, based on the weighted residual method and the DTSF's results in a nonlinear engine problem representing eigenvalues and engine modes of the system. The applicability of the DFE method is then demonstrated by illustrative examples, where a Wittrick-Williams root counting technique is used to find the system's natural frequencies. The DFE approach, an intermediate method between FEM and "Exact" formulation, is characterized by higher convergence rates, and can be advantageously used when multiple natural frequencies and/or higher modes of beam-like structures are to be evaluated.
    Truck stability on different types of horizontal curves combined with vertical alignments
    Truck stability on different types of horizontal curves combined with vertical alignments
    The combination of horizontal curves with vertical alignments is commonly used in different classifications of highways; either on highway mainstream or on highway interchange ramps. The horizontal curves, combined with vertical alignments, may be single, compound or reverse horizontal curves. The current design guidelines do not adequately investigate vehicle stability on such three-dimensional (3D) alignments. Computer software that simulates vehicle behaviour on different geometrical alignments was employed to investigate vehicle stability on such 3D alignments. It was found that vehicle safety is questionable, especially for larger vehicles on reverse curves associated with vertical alignments. The critical speed, where the vehicle starts to rollover or skid, was found to be close to design speed for those 3D alignments. Design aids were then developed to address the recommended solutions to maintain the margin of safety required.
    Trust Me, You Should Buy This: Cosmetic Marketing and Product Reviews on YouTube
    Trust Me, You Should Buy This: Cosmetic Marketing and Product Reviews on YouTube
    YouTube beauty gurus, in combination with traditional marketing and advertising techniques, manipulate the opinions of cosmetics consumers. Today, advertising techniques are not only being applied online by companies and corporations using conventional strategies (e.g. banner ads and text-based Google ads), but are becoming blended, integrated, and disguised as user-generated content. So-called “beauty gurus,” for example, are using online advertising platforms to spread messages that promote cosmetic products to the public on behalf of corporations. This paper will examine how beauty gurus on YouTube review products while offering advice that is accepted as truth on an allegedly democratic, or at least user-generated, online platform. This Major Research Paper will examine the application of advertising models and propaganda techniques to YouTube beauty marketing using the insights of Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky (1988), as well as Edward Bernays (1935), whose ground-breaking and influential methods of analyzing advertising and public relations can offer new insights into contemporary online media and the ways these seemingly open platforms are being taken over by private interests and large corporations (all while projecting the images and ideals of authenticity, amateurism, and open access). This study will demonstrate that YouTube beauty reviews are a form of advertising that utilize trust and bias, two important factors that Herman and Chomsky (1988) and Bernays (1935) explore, in order to disguise advertising as individual opinion expressed in the interest of the consumer. My findings suggest that corporations have been able to adapt traditional methods of beauty marketing to YouTube (and, implicitly, other online video platforms beyond the scope of this study) through the use of “beauty gurus.” Despite disclaimers in these “beauty gurus’” YouTube channels that products have been sent to them for free, the lines between what constitutes an advertisement and what constitutes user generated content are being blurred. My suggestion is that this blurring leaves the public confused and more susceptible to influence within the realm of online beauty guides, reviews, and tutorials.
    Trust management in opportunisitic networks: a semantic web-based approach
    Trust management in opportunisitic networks: a semantic web-based approach
    The need for having a mechanism to automatically interpret content available on the Web without a human intervention has lead to the development of a new vision for the next generation of the Web, known as the Semantic Web. This new paradigm advocates the use of ontologies to achieve a common language for communication among humans, computers, and programs. In this thesis, a novel Semantic Web-based solution called SCOW-Q (Semantic Capability Discovery With QoS) model, is proposed, which provides an architectural basis for representing trust and trust management in Opportunistic Networks. The model is validated by means of a Use Case Scenario using a well-defined Semantic Web Service framework.
    Trust-enhanced secure multipath routing for mobile ad hoc networks
    Trust-enhanced secure multipath routing for mobile ad hoc networks
    Due to recent advances in computing and communication technologies, Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are becoming networks of choice for various applications such as emergencies [sic] preparedness and response, military and crisis management, and healthcare, to name a few. The main reason for this is that in MANET, information exchange between nodes can happen dynamically without pre-exisiting fixed network infrastructure with designated centralized access points. However, this privilege also comes with some security drawbacks, especially from a message security viewpoint because the implementation of hard-cryptographic security now becomes a challenging prospect.In this thesis, we improve a recently proposed method of message security in MANET (so called benchmark scheme, also referred to as trust-based multipath DSR routing scheme), by introducing a trust model that makes multi-path routing flexible enough to avoid non-trusted routes that may use brute force attacks to decrypt messages travelling through the network en route to their destinations. Simulation results, coupled with theoretical justification, affirm that the proposed solution is much more secured than the above-mentioned benchmark method and traditional multi-path routing algorithms.
    Truth to Nature: Pre-Raphaelite Dress in Nineteenth-Century Visual Culture
    Truth to Nature: Pre-Raphaelite Dress in Nineteenth-Century Visual Culture
    The Pre-Raphaelites were a group of artists in mid-nineteenth century England who disliked popular art, design, and fashion. They devised an oppositional, artistic type of dress. This major research project (MRP) endeavours to define, contextualize, and interpret the special kind of dress depicted in Pre-Raphaelite paintings and worn by women in the Pre-Raphaelite circle. Qualitative, interdisciplinary historical methods were used in my research method, and visual media (both primary and secondary sources) were used throughout the project. Outcomes include a new analysis of Pre-Raphaelite dress and its formal qualities along with a socio-cultural analysis of why the Pre-Raphaelites chose to dress in an eclectic way. The paintings reveal the diverse sources the Pre-Raphaelites used to create original garments in their illustrated works. The original garments the Pre-Raphaelites wore influenced other artistic, dress, and design reform movements such as the Aesthetic Dress movement and the Arts and Craft movement.
    Tubular lysosome biogenesis in innate immune cells
    Tubular lysosome biogenesis in innate immune cells
    Lysosomes are essential organelles required for breakdown of endocytic and biosynthetic cargo, pathogen killing and autophagy. In most cells, lysosomes are typically small punctate structures. By contrast, innate immune cells like macrophages and dendeitic cells that have been exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharids (LPS) exhibit strikingly tubular lysosomes (TLs) and lysosome-related major histocompatility class II (MHCII) compartments (MIIC), respectively. TLs are suggested to play a role in phagosome maturation and retention of fluid-phase endocytic uptake in activated macrophages. In addition, the dendritic cell tubular MIIC (tMIIC) may be involved in antigen presentation. Since remarkably little was known about how tubular lysosomes form, I took to investigate the molecular requirements for this process in macrophages and dendritic cells and present my findings in this thesis. Here I confirm that microtubules are necessary as a template for lysosome tabulation, along with dynein and kinesin microtubule-dependendent motors. We were first to identify molecular components necessary for lysosome tabulation; TL biogenesis required the concerted action of the Ar18b GTPasem along with its effector SKIP, a kinesin adaptor proteins for dynein and kinesin, respectively. Importantly, we observed that TLs are highly dynamic structures whereas punctate lysosomes are conspicuously more static. I also present evidence that mTOR, a lysosomal protein kinase, is required for LPS-induced TL biogenesis and cell surface delivery of MHCII in macrophages and dendritic cells. First, I show that the MyD88-P13K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway regulates LPS-induced lysosome tabulation. Second, I demonstrate that mTOR is required for anterograde lysosomal transport suggesting that this kinase may regulate tabulation and antigen presentation by modulating the microtubule-based motor activity of lysosomes. Finally I present preliminary data on the properties of tubular lysosomes compare to punctate lysosomes in an effort to characterize these organelles. Among the data presented is evidence that total lysosomal volume increases significantly upon tabulation, which may have important underlying implications in antigen sampling and processing. Overall, my work has expanded on our knowledge on our knowledge of how morphology and trafficking of lysosomes is modulated in immune cells, which may alter cell function.