Theses

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  • the Remasculation Film: Themes and Variations
    the Remasculation Film: Themes and Variations
    During the late 1980s and early 1990s, a discourse of masculinity crisis precipitated the appearance of a number of what Susan Jeffords describes as “rearticulations of screen masculinity,” which influenced the production of a group films whose narrative diegeses reaffirmed the heteronormative, hypermasculine façade onscreen. These films are identified and defined in this dissertation as remasculation pictures, or narratives that showcase the hero’s oscillation between two oppositional expressions of screen masculinity. In the rhetoric of the remasculation film, the protagonist’s emasculation initiates a quest to remasculate by reaffirming the dominance and authority of the hypermasculine archetype. Further, in a few key performances (Red River [1948], The Searchers [1956], The Wings of Eagles [1957]), John Wayne exemplifies the ultra-conservative values, imposing physicality, staunch heterosexuality, and capability of this heteronormative, hypermasculine archetype. However, Wayne’s image has been employed only as an exemplification of this façade, since this project does not suggest that the remasculation hero’s victory marks his appropriation of Wayne’s masculinity, only the archetype with which many of his performances have been associated. The remasculation picture is part of a film cluster, and not a genre because films of this category are primarily linked by similarities in narrative structure and their glorification of this hypermasculine figure. Further, to illustrate some of the themes of the remasculation picture, this dissertation features three chapters that focus on as many distinct expressions of the remasculation formula. The first of these chapters draws on Unforgiven (1992) and Law Abiding Citizen (2010) to furnish a discussion of judicial emasculation and remasculatory vigilantism. The second case study chapter looks at remasculation through pugilism with an examination of Payback (1999) and Get Carter (2000), while the final section focuses only on The Company Men (2010) to illustrate emasculative redundancy and the reacquisition of purpose as the final variation discussed in this project. While films of the remasculation cluster glorify the hypermasculine image, one cannot assume that the filmmakers responsible for their production aim to either disseminate ultra-conservative values or impose them on the audience. Similarly, the relative popularity of remasculation films does not necessarily indicate the presence of an audience seeking narrative diegeses showcasing the reaffirming triumph of the hypermasculine man. The continued production of the remasculation picture signifies only the appearance of a trend in contemporary film that is attributable to the destabilization of the normative masculine image at the end of the twentieth century.
    ΔT Exploring The Creative Agency Of Time In Architecture
    ΔT Exploring The Creative Agency Of Time In Architecture
    Architecture exists in time. This statement may appear to be a truism but this is not the way in which architecture is typically conceived. It is not acceptable to conceive of architecture within the abstract context of stasis, nor to consider the architectural project ‘finished’ upon the completion of construction. Praxis must engage deeply with the dynamic conception of architecture within an evolving context, throughout the life of a building in time, and as animated through occupation and constructive perception. This paper provides a theoretical overview of time as it relates to architecture and philosophy. An architecture of time designs the conditions for interaction between user and environment, resists the crutch of formal autonomy, and finds novelty through engagement and the faith in the ability of the user to appropriate the space in unexpected and serendipitous ways. In this way architecture becomes a medium for the creative agency of time.
    π-Conjugated Heteroles Containing Group 13 Elements
    π-Conjugated Heteroles Containing Group 13 Elements
    This research targeted the synthesis of group 13 neutral heteroles via transmetallation of the tin atom in stannole moieties. The synthesis of Heteroles of 15a (1-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetraphenylborole), 15b (1-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetraphenylaluminole) and 15c (1-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetraphenylgallole) were attempted. The potential formation of Lewis base adducts were explored through the addition of a coordinating solvent of THF, Et3N, and Et2O and characterized with NMR (1H, 13C and 11B where applicable). It was attempted to synthesize Polymer 17a from the di-brominated borole monomer 16a via a Pd-catalyzed polycondensation reaction. THF was subsequently added to the polymer in an attempt to produce the polymer adduct 17a·THF. This was performed to produce a stable enough material for GPC analysis. The polymer was also characterized with NMR. Theoretical calculations were undertaken at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of DFT to help identify the effect of HOMO-LUMO energy gap of the above heteroles and their adducts. DFT calculations reveal that monomers and oligomer energy gaps can be tuned by substituents attached to the heterole, the type of Lewis adduct formed and the degree of catenation. These monomers and oligomers could potentially be novel building blocks for the synthesis of small energy gap π-conjugated systems.
    “Augmenting visual faculties: an exploration of traditional and experimental augmented reality methods in artistic practice”
    “Augmenting visual faculties: an exploration of traditional and experimental augmented reality methods in artistic practice”
    "The final project resulted in a series of artistic works applying both traditional and experimental AR methods. The various AR artworks created compose a body of work that are intended to be viewed as a series resulting from two streams of exploration: traditional marker tracking methods, and experimental processes with non-marker images and alternative materials"--From page 8.
    “Bahala Na Ang Dios”: The Church’s Role in the Socialization of Filipinos in the Greater Toronto Area
    “Bahala Na Ang Dios”: The Church’s Role in the Socialization of Filipinos in the Greater Toronto Area
    This paper investigates the role that the Roman Catholic church has played in the socialization of Filipinos in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The research is based on scholarly acknowledgment of the important place of social institutions—such as churches, synagogues, mosques, temples and other places for religious and faith-based gatherings—in the settlement and integration experiences of immigrants. The paper argues that Roman Catholicism, first introduced into the Philippines via Spanish colonization, has become an important marker of identity for many Filipinos and has functioned—aided by their facility in the English language (a result of American colonization of the Philippines)—as a means of easing the barriers to Filipinos’ integration into Canada.To better analyze the role the Roman Catholic church has played in Filipino-Canadian immigrant life, the study provides an overview of the history of migration to Canada and discusses the place of the church as seen from the perspective of representatives of diasporic, transnational and second generation communities of Filipinos in Canada. As such, the main data for the study is drawn primary material comprising interviews with Filipino-Canadians from each of these community groups.
    “Feeling” in Modern Dance Print Media: Loïe Fuller, Isadora Duncan, Maud Allan
    “Feeling” in Modern Dance Print Media: Loïe Fuller, Isadora Duncan, Maud Allan
    Between 1890 and 1920, modern dancers such as Isadora Duncan, Loïe Fuller, and Maud Allan presented a new performative aesthetic in dance. Breaking from the narrative storytelling that dominated nineteenth-century vaudeville and ballet, these dancers advanced non-narrative movement, thereby encouraging a new aesthetic engagement from the audience, namely, one that was rooted in notions of corporeal sensation rather than narrative telos or (melo)dramatic pathos. These new responses, this dissertation argues, are reflected in the new tactics for writing the dancing body, which at once render problematic the putative objectivity of journalistic criticism and reveal the limits of traditional dance criticism’s focus on intricate technique and plot line. This dissertation pursues its argument by studying over 300 print reviews of dances performed by Fuller, Duncan, and Allan between 1890 and 1920 culled from North-American archives and representing a spectrum of print media—from mainstream national media, such as The New York Times, to regional newspapers, to more specialized theatre magazines—to reveal compelling insight into hermeneutic entanglements of language and movement. Informed by the work of recent performance studies (e.g. Phelan; Schneider; Taylor), this dissertation approaches this body of dance reviews from an inverse perspective from that represented by traditional dance history scholarship. That is, instead of reading reviews as documentation in order to understand these dances, the study explores how reviewers perform criticism, thus framing our understanding of modern dance in specific ways. This dissertation engages with the correlation between media and performance as either documentary or performative, arguing that writing performance offers promises for both types of engagement with the live event. Collectively, these reviews reveal that dance criticism involved a metacritical reflection on the significance of the critical writing act itself, and advanced a style of synesthetic metaphor to describe novel kinesthetic experiences of spectatorship. Ultimately, the new tactics to modern dance criticism not only revealed a crisis in articulation but prompted a performative style of writing dance criticism that went in tandem with the development of the dance review genre itself, whose placement in popular print media was mounting to become a regular feature by the 1930s.
    “Good” Evidence: A Critical Lens on Representations of Development and the Developing World
    “Good” Evidence: A Critical Lens on Representations of Development and the Developing World
    The ethics of conventional representations of the developing world in charity fundraising and photojournalism have been increasingly questioned. Van Leeuwen‘s (2000) social semiotic model of analysis of visual racism, applied to a famine image, reveals strategies for symbolically representing otherness that perpetuate a naturalized "Western rescuer/developing world victim" narrative. Respondent interviews demonstrate that such "poverty porn" produces viewer apathy, while an alternative representation depicting self-determination evokes a charitable response. Elliott‘s (2003) ethical framework is used to judge the harm of conventional representations. The results, while tentative, suggest worth in expanding the study in light of implications for represented persons, the viewer, and Canadian society. In the meantime, image producers and distributors must become visually literate to avoid using harmful images.
    “Hey Cabbie! Where are you From?” An Examination of Everyday Racism in Toronto’s Taxi Industry
    “Hey Cabbie! Where are you From?” An Examination of Everyday Racism in Toronto’s Taxi Industry
    Using an anti-racist Marxist lens, issues of social exclusion and settlement are broadly highlighted taking into account racism in an industry that is most commonly noted for its ease of entry for immigrant professionals. This study attempts to build on previous studies of Toronto’s taxi industry (Hathiyani, 2006; Abraham, Sundar, & Whitmore, 2008) to focus specifically on racism. This research paper examines the extent to which ‘everyday racism’ is both a by-product of and a critical ingredient in perpetuating structural racism, using Toronto’s taxi industry as a case study. Drawing on interviews from 18 fulltime taxi drivers who identified as racialized groups and were born outside of Canada, it describes the familiar tensions associated with experiencing and responding to instances of racism in a precarious industry. In the absence of an association, anti-discrimination or workplace rights to protect the driver against racial abuse and harassment, drivers are forced to negotiate their responses on an individualized basis. Drivers linked everyday racism to both class position and structural racism within the industry. These findings strongly demonstrated inadequate policies to protect drivers from everyday racism in the workplace as a result of both structural racism and a neo-liberal climate. This warrants further inquiry as Toronto’s taxi industry is a major employer of racialized, immigrant men.
    “Let’s keep it about Kony, not Kony 2012”  Exploring the shifts in language around a user generated hashtag during the Kony 2012 movement
    “Let’s keep it about Kony, not Kony 2012” Exploring the shifts in language around a user generated hashtag during the Kony 2012 movement
    Social media has become more than a platform for social engagement and connectivity. Users have tapped into the power of social media‟s reach to connect with like-minded individuals around the world. Protests, revolutions and global movements are taking shape as a result of what the Internet affords us as users – immediate connectivity. This paper aims to explore Twitter as a platform for activist movements. Specifically, I look at the language used within the Kony 2012 movement and aim to understand how the language within tweets changed overtime by following a user-generated hashtag (#Kony2012). For this study, I analyzed 325 tweets from the Kony 2012 campaign. These tweets were collected from March 5th 2012 to March 17th 2012. My findings indicate that Twitter‟s hashtag function was always used in the three following ways: (1) Sharing Information, (2) Passive Calls to Action, (3) Strong Calls to Action. Overall, the tweets I studied surrounding #Kony2012 hashtag suggest that this movement was weak in mobilizing change but strong in raising awareness
    “Nannies strike back”: the representation of live-in caregivers and the Live-in Caregiver Program  in the mainstream and ethnic press
    “Nannies strike back”: the representation of live-in caregivers and the Live-in Caregiver Program in the mainstream and ethnic press
    Utilizing Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), this study examines the representation of live-in caregivers (LC) and the Live-in Caregiver Program (LCP), between 2007 and 2013, in eleven mainstream Canadian newspapers (N=32) and five Filipino-Canadian newspapers (N=31). It contributes to the extant media analyses on the LCP by including the perspective of the ethnic press and, thus, the voices of LC, LC advocates, and members of the Filipino community. It also examines the recent hype surrounding the emergence of au pairing as a suitable caregiving option for Canadian families in light of the declining number of LC following the April 1, 2010 reforms to the LCP. This study concludes that the mainstream Canadian press portrayal of LC and their children is congruous with the “Problem Approach,” while that in the ethnic newspapers is congruous with the “Agency Approach” providing a space to both empower LC and resist negative mainstream portrayals.
    “Orgulhosamente Sós:” Recent Immigration to the Portuguese Republic
    “Orgulhosamente Sós:” Recent Immigration to the Portuguese Republic
    Immigration to the Portuguese Republic is a rather new phenomenon in a world where migratory patterns have become rather pedestrian. This paper analyzes the history of both Portuguese emigration and immigration to Portugal, and the role that international relations have played in both. It also demonstrates the social and governmental response to an increasing alien presence amongst the host society. It argues that racism is not an endemic issue in Portugal and that the host society, both its people and the government, have laboured to integrate newcomers into Portuguese society within a framework of Portugal's domestic needs, on the one hand, and her international commitments on the other.
    “Put It In Your Back Pocket”: Identity And Belonging Among Second Generation Racialized Canadians
    “Put It In Your Back Pocket”: Identity And Belonging Among Second Generation Racialized Canadians
    Through interviews with four second generation Canadians, this Major Research Paper explores identity and belonging among second generation children (aged 18-30) of racialized immigrants in Toronto, Canada. Primary research questions include: (i) How do these individuals describe their identity? (ii) Do they have a sense of belonging in Canada; why or why not? (iii) Do they experience discrimination based on their ethno-racial identity? (iv) How does this impact their self-identification as Canadian and sense of belonging? The findings show that second generation racialized Canadians appear to hold multiple identities, forming a hyphenated or hybridized identity in which racialized identity and language/accent figure prominently. They also appear to have situational identities, with their identities shifting depending on the following various situational factors: (i) their location (including the country, city, and environment they are in), (ii) the individuals they are surrounded by including who they are speaking to, and (iii) the goal(s) of the situation.