Theses

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  • A Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends and Diesel on Aquatic Organisms
    A Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends and Diesel on Aquatic Organisms
    The increasing demand of alternative energy sources has created interest in biodiesel and biodiesel blends; biodiesel is promoted as a diesel substitute. Like diesel spills, biodiesel spills can have deleterious effects on aquatic environments. The effect of neat biodiesel, biodiesel blends and diesel on O. mykiss and D. magna was evaluated using acute toxicity testing. Static non-renewable bioassays of freshwater organisms containing B100, B50, B20, B5 and conventional diesel fuel were used to compare the acute effects of biodiesel to diesel. Mortality was the significant endpoint measurement in this study; percent mortality and lethal concentration (LC50) at different exposure times were determined from the acute toxicity tests performed. Trials were considered valid if the controls exhibited more than 90% survival. Based on percent mortality and LC50 values, a toxicity ranking of fuels was developed. The results of the definitive tests indicated that diesel is more toxic than neat biodiesel or biodiesel blends. This approach can provide insights into the lethality of biodiesel spills in the aquatic environment.
    A Complex-Lamellar Description Of Boundary Layer Transition
    A Complex-Lamellar Description Of Boundary Layer Transition
    Flow transition is important, in both practical and phenomenological terms. However, there is currently no method for identifying the spatial locations associated with transition, such as the start and end of intermittency. The concept of flow stability and experimental correlations have been used, however, flow stability only identifies the location where disturbances begin to grow in the laminar flow and experimental correlations can only give approximations as measuring the start and end of intermittency is diffcult. Therefore, the focus of this work is to construct a method to identify the start and end of intermittency, for a natural boundary layer transition and a separated flow transition. We obtain these locations by deriving a complex-lamellar description of the velocity field that exists between a fully laminar and fully turbulent boundary condition. Mathematically, this complex-lamellar decomposition, which is constructed from the classical Darwin-Lighthill-Hawthorne drift function and the transport of enstrophy, describes the flow that exists between the fully laminar Pohlhausen equations and Prandtl's fully turbulent one seventh power law. We approximate the difference in enstrophy density between the boundary conditions using a power series. The slope of the power series is scaled by using the shape of the universal intermittency distribution within the intermittency region. We solve the complex-lamellar decomposition of the velocity field along with the slope of the difference in enstrophy density function to determine the location of the laminar and turbulent boundary conditions. Then from the difference in enstrophy density function we calculate the start and end of intermittency. We perform this calculation on a natural boundary layer transition over a flat plate for zero pressure gradient flow and for separated shear flow over a separation bubble. We compare these results to existing experimental results and verify the accuracy of our transition model.
    A Computational Study of Structure Development and Texture Formation in Carbonaceous Mesophase Fibers
    A Computational Study of Structure Development and Texture Formation in Carbonaceous Mesophase Fibers
    In this thesis, thermal relaxation phenomena after the melt-extrusion of a rigid discotic uniaxial nematic mesophase pitch were studied using mathematical modeling and computer simulation. The Eriksen and Landau-de Gennes continuum theories were used to investigate the structure development and texture formation across mesophase pitch based carbon fibers. It is found that during the thermal relaxation, discotic nematic molecules stored elastic free energy decays. The distorted nematic molecular profile reoriented to release the stored elastic free energy. The difference in time scales for molecular reorientation and thermal relaxation resulted in different transverse textures. The rate at which the fibers are cooled is the main factor in controlling the structure development. A slow cooling rate would permit nemiatic discotic molecules to reorient to a well developed (radial or onion) texture. The random texture is a result of rapid quenching. The numerical results are consistent with published experimental observations.
    A Conservation Survey of Photographic Albums and Photographically Illustrated Books from the National Gallery of Canada
    A Conservation Survey of Photographic Albums and Photographically Illustrated Books from the National Gallery of Canada
    This applied thesis project demonstrates a methodology for a conservation survey of photographic albums and photographically illustrated books applied to the Photograph Collection of the National Gallery of Canada, in Ottawa, Ontario. The conservation survey captures basic descriptive and condition information and employs a priority classification system for treatment and housing recommendations for roughly one hundred and twenty bound structures in which there are mounted or inserted photographic prints. While the needs and requirements of conservation surveys are dependant on the history, scope and nature of individual collections, this thesis attempts to provide an example, or baseline, for the development of conservation surveys for similar collections or collections with similar needs. Additionally, this thesis presents a visual glossary that illustrates and serves as a reference for the identification of the leaf and binding structures of photographic albums and photographically illustrated books occurring most frequently in museum collections.
    A Context Based Automated System for Lung Nodule Detection in CT Images
    A Context Based Automated System for Lung Nodule Detection in CT Images
    This thesis is focused on automatic lung nodule detection in CT images. CAD systems are suited for this tak because the sheer volume of information present in CT data sets is overwhelming for radiologists to process. The system developed in this thesis presents a fully automatic solution that applies a sequential algoriths which strongly focuses on nodule context. The system operates at a rate of 80% sensitivity with 3.05 FPs per slice. Our testing data, consisting of 19 CTdata sets containing239 lung nodules, is extremely robust when compared with other documented systems. In addition it introduces many new approaches such as a tight bounding, vessel connectivity, perimeter analysis, adaptive MLT and region growing based lung segmentation. The experimental results produced by this systemare an affirmation of the competitiveness of its performance when compared to other documented approaches.
    A Cost Efficiency Analysis and Mechanism for Dynamic Partially Reconfigurable Computing Systems
    A Cost Efficiency Analysis and Mechanism for Dynamic Partially Reconfigurable Computing Systems
    Dynamic Partially Reconfigurable Computing Systems have proven to be useful in environments where a multiplicity of tasks is required. These systems used Dynamic Virtual Components (DVCs) for reconfiguration. However, the computing architecture (dedicated, software, hybrid) of the DVC must be selected during the design stage. In this thesis, a mechanism in which we evaluate and analyze the cost efficiency of a DVC based on a cost efficiency factor (CEF) is proposed. Data centric and stream centric experimental tests were performed and the CEF of a 3D stereo-panoramic augmented reality hybrid DVC was de termined. The results show that development costs and number of units to be produced influence the cost efficiency of a DVC. From the results it is concluded that the CEF can be a useful tool for selecting the computing architecture of a DVC, particularly when only a few units are to be deployed.
    A Critical Discourse Analysis on the Framing of the Feminization of Forced Displacement
    A Critical Discourse Analysis on the Framing of the Feminization of Forced Displacement
    The Major Research Paper seeks to examine the discursive practices that frame the issue of the feminization of forced displacement and construct representations of forcibly displaced women. It will examine the discourse that constructs representations of forcibly displaced women, which has implications for their protection and treatment in society. Forcibly displaced women are victimized through the representational discourse in terms of how they are spoken about and their visual depictions (Johnson, 2011). Based on feminist theory, the conceptual framework of the gender binary, gender and cultural essentialism, representations of victims, the discourse of victimization, and global feminism will be applied to a critical discourse analysis of the UHCR Handbook for the Protection of Women and Girls. This paper argues that the linguistic constructs and discursive practice contribute to misrepresentations of forcibly displaced women.
    A Critical Review of Health Impact Assessments in Ontario's Nuclear Industry
    A Critical Review of Health Impact Assessments in Ontario's Nuclear Industry
    Risk is central to the health effects of nuclear power plants. The regulator in Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), claims to employ international best practices and risk-informed decision-making to ensure Canadian plants are among the safest in the world. Environmental Assessment (EA), required for operating license approval, is used to determine whether risks to pubic health, both chronic and catastrophic, are within acceptable limits. The main objective of this thesis is to establish Health Risk Assessment (HRA) best practices, approximated by the degree of concordance among HRA authorities, and use these concepts to evaluate EAs of recent nuclear power projects. The extent of compliance would ultimately reveal the CNSC’s commitment to protecting public health and safety. It is concluded from the review of six such EAs that the CNSC is falling short of best practices, ultimately approving projects without an accurate estimation of risk.
    A DAM Alternative : Increasing Access To The Image Permanence Institute's Photograph Collection Using Adobe Bridge
    A DAM Alternative : Increasing Access To The Image Permanence Institute's Photograph Collection Using Adobe Bridge
    Implementing a digital asset management (DAM) system can be an expensive and complicated endeavor, especially for non-profit organizations with limited budgets and technical staff. This applied thesis project presents an alternative to tradition DAM systems by utilizing the browsing and searching capabilities of Adobe Photoshop Bridge. For this project, hundreds of photographs were digitized and assigned keywords. By applying descriptive keywords to the digital images and using a file naming structure that references the physical location of the original objects, the objects in the Image Permanence Institute's photograph collection become more accessible to researchers and staff. In addition to providing a workflow, this thesis provided information of digitization techniques and standards.
    A Descriptive Analysis of F. Beato & Co.’s Commercial Souvenir Album, Photographic Views and Costumes of Japan, Held at George Eastman House
    A Descriptive Analysis of F. Beato & Co.’s Commercial Souvenir Album, Photographic Views and Costumes of Japan, Held at George Eastman House
    This thesis is a descriptive analysis of, Photographic Views and Costumes of Japan, a souvenir album issued by F. Beato & Co., Yokohama, a photographic studio run from 1868 to 1877 by photographer, Felice Beato (Italian, 1832-1909). Held at George Eastman House, this disassembled album was likely purchased in 1876 or 1877 by F.E. Foster of the Pacific Mail and Steamship Company. It contains fifty-one albumen silver photographs, twenty-four letterpress album notes, and thirteen blank leaves. Twenty-eight of the album’s photographs can be attributed to Beato. The remaining twenty-three are by unidentified photographers. The thesis provides an overview of Japanese photography and Beato’s career; establishes the album’s origins; and explores the extent of the album’s modifications, as well as their significance within the historical context of the period. Appendices include descriptions of six additional albums from Beato’s studio and a fully illustrated catalogue of the Eastman House album.
    A Descriptive analysis of Ten Painted Tintypes from the George Eastman House Collection
    A Descriptive analysis of Ten Painted Tintypes from the George Eastman House Collection
    This thesis is a descriptive analysis of a selected group of ten painted tintypes from the George Eastman House collection. All ten objects are large, heavily overpainted portraits with dates ranging from the 1860s to the 1890s, which is considered the peak of the painted tintype’s popularity. All ten tintypes share two significant features: they all have a completely overpainted, or in one case an abraded, background and they all share a collage-like look due to the use of different paints on one image. The thesis will investigate the painted tintypes’ aesthetics in relation to their time period considering the major social changes that occurred during the Victorian era. It will contextualize them in a broader tradition of painted photography and show their connection with the notions of time, space and memory as they were influenced by and shifted with the introduction of new communication and transportation technologies.