Theses

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  • A Descriptive analysis of Ten Painted Tintypes from the George Eastman House Collection
    A Descriptive analysis of Ten Painted Tintypes from the George Eastman House Collection
    This thesis is a descriptive analysis of a selected group of ten painted tintypes from the George Eastman House collection. All ten objects are large, heavily overpainted portraits with dates ranging from the 1860s to the 1890s, which is considered the peak of the painted tintype’s popularity. All ten tintypes share two significant features: they all have a completely overpainted, or in one case an abraded, background and they all share a collage-like look due to the use of different paints on one image. The thesis will investigate the painted tintypes’ aesthetics in relation to their time period considering the major social changes that occurred during the Victorian era. It will contextualize them in a broader tradition of painted photography and show their connection with the notions of time, space and memory as they were influenced by and shifted with the introduction of new communication and transportation technologies.
    A Dynamic Predictive Search Algorithm for Fast Block-Based Motion Estimation
    A Dynamic Predictive Search Algorithm for Fast Block-Based Motion Estimation
    Predictive fast Motion Estimation (ME) algorithms have been widely used in video CODECs due to their performance efficiency and low computational complexity. In this thesis, a new block-based fast motion estimation technique named Dynamic Predictive Search Algorithm (DPSA) is developed, which can be considered in predictive zonal search category.The proposed approach is based on the observation that temporally and spatially adjacent macro-blocks are not just statically correlated, but also dynamic alterations in their motion content are highly coherent. DPSA introduces a new set of six candidate predicted motion vectors. For early termination criteria, DPSA modifies termination procedure of already existing EPZS algorithm.Performance of this newly proposed algorithm has been compared to four other state-of-the-art algorithms implemented on JVT, H.264 standard software platform.Experimental results have proven that DPSA accomplishes up to 38% compression ratio enhancement achieved by a process with more 14.75% less computational complexity and up to0.47 dB higher PSNR values over the EPZS. It also manages to have up to 13% speed up over EPZS algorithm.Because of its simplicity and low computational complexity DPSA is energy efficient for portable video processing in computation- or power-constrained applications and easy to be implemented on both FPGA- and Microcontroller-based embedded systems. Also, higher compression ratio makes DPSA more compatible with limited capacity storage media, and limited band-width transmission networks.
    A Fast, Fully Automated Prostate Boundary Segmentation Using Probabilistic Approaches In Ultrasound Images
    A Fast, Fully Automated Prostate Boundary Segmentation Using Probabilistic Approaches In Ultrasound Images
    Segmentation of prostate boundaries in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images plays a great role in prostate cancer diagnosis. Due to the low signal to noise ratio and existence of the speckle noise in TRUS images, prostate image segmentation has proven to be an extremely difficult task. In this thesis report, a fast fully automated hybrid segmentation method based on probabilistic approaches is presented. First, the position of the initial model is automatically estimated using prostate boundary representative patterns. Next, the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and Markov Random Field (MRF) theory are utilized in the deformation strategy to optimally fit the initial model on the prostate boundaries. A less computationally EM algorithm and a new surface smoothing technique are proposed to decrease the segmentation time. Successful experimental results with the average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) value 93.9±2.7% and computational time around 9 seconds validate the algorithm.
    A Finding Aid For The Models' Guild of Philadelphia Collection
    A Finding Aid For The Models' Guild of Philadelphia Collection
    The following is a professional practice project which focuses on the research, methodology, and development of a finding aid for the Models' Guild of Philadelphia Collection, which currently resides in the Richard and Ronay Menschel Library at George Eastman House as part of the Dr. Louis Walton Sipley collection which was donated by 3M in 1977. The contents of this collection include business correspondence documents, ephemera, photographs, and other material dating from 1946 to approximately 1963. This project was undertaken with the goal of organizing, and inventorying the collections that it would be more accessible to researchers within the Library at George Eastman House.
    A Finite Element Formulation Of Active Constrained-Layer Functionally Graded Beam
    A Finite Element Formulation Of Active Constrained-Layer Functionally Graded Beam
    Active constrained-layer damping (ACLD) treatment is the combination of passive and active features in the control of structural vibrations. A three-layer structure that consists of a functionally graded (FG) host beam, with a bonded viscoelastic layer and a constraining piezoelectric fiber-reinforce composite (PFRC) laminate is modeled and analyzed. The assumptions for modeling the system are the application of Timoshenko beam theory for the host beam and PFRC laminate, and a higher-order beam theory for the viscoelastic layer. The formulation is assumed to have field variables that are expressed as polynomials through the thickness of the structure and linear interpolation across the span. The extended Hamilton's principle is utilized to determine the system equations of motion, which are then solved using the Newmark time-integration scheme. Many support conditions such as fully- and partial-clamped cantilevered, partially clamped-clamped and simply-supported are analyzed. The effects of ply angle orientaion, as well as FG properties, are also carefully examined.
    A Framework Design for Collaborative GIS Applications: Based on Hybrid Architecture
    A Framework Design for Collaborative GIS Applications: Based on Hybrid Architecture
    Geographical information systems (GIS) software tools that support synchronous collaboration efforts among distributed decision-making participants can be very useful in many application areas, such as urban planning, engineering design, disaster and emergency response, and distant learning. However, most existing GIS tools do not provide adequate support for group interaction on decision-making and design scenarios. Early efforts on developing collaborative GIS tools have focused on collaborative geospatial information sharing and presentation in a group environment, mostly adapted to centralized client-server architecture for specific applications. This thesis presents the results of a research project, aiming at providing such GIS software tools over the Internet. Based on the analysis of two mainstream architectures used in collaborative applications: centralized architecture and replicated architecture, a hybrid architecture is selected to develop a collaborative GIS framework as the platform for prototyping the aforementioned GIS tools. The discussion focuses on synchronous collaboration where people interact with each other using the system at the same time from different places. The prototype system, called GeoLink, addresses some important design and development issues such as session management and floor control through a message sending approach.
    A Framework for Early Design Process Stages Based on an Analogy to Evolution
    A Framework for Early Design Process Stages Based on an Analogy to Evolution
    Recent research has revealed several shortcomings of design processes with respect to modern contexts. Two of these are complexity and sustainability. Design problems are becoming increasingly complex, to the point where designers can be easily overwhelmed. Sustainability, while recognized as pivotal to future human progress and well-being, remains largely disconnected from design processes. Current practices in the field of sustainability are not integrated into the design process and thus, are often carried out only as after-the-fact addenda. The goal of this research is to address these two problems with current design processes. It has long been known that analogies are useful and help to reduce complexity by rooting a topic into pre-existing knowledge of the user. Patterns have also been shown to be useful in helping solve complex problems in engineering, as well as architecture and computer science. Therefore, this dissertation proposes a new design framework which: reduces problem complexity through the use of an analogy and patterns, makes provisions for emergent properties within the patterns and the framework, and provides a means for generating solutions with aspects of sustainability via the patterns and evaluation criteria. The analogical framework, based on similarities found in the phenomena and processes between natural systems (nature) and design, is then used to formulate a new model for describing the design of a product, the Design Genome. The main focus of this dissertation is to use this model as a basis for a new method of concept generation, the Design by DNA method, and concept evaluation, the Fitness Space method. It is shown that the Fitness Space method has the potential to solve many, if not all, of the downfalls of conventional evaluation methods. A pilot experiment testing the Design by DNA method against previously known design methods is conducted and demonstrates the feasibility for a full-scale experiment. Even with small population sizes, results from the experiment show promise that the DbD method is useful as a tool for the concept generation process. Based on the work done, it appears that Design by DNA and the Fitness Space are promising approaches for improving design processes.
    A Great Variety of New and Fine Designs: Advertisements for Painted Backgrounds, 1856--1903
    A Great Variety of New and Fine Designs: Advertisements for Painted Backgrounds, 1856--1903
    The painted background, as a piece of photographic equipment, has rarely bee studied apart form its decorative function in portraits. This thesis addresses the history, construction, and use of the painted background within studio portrait photography during the latter half of the nineteenth century as revealed from examining advertisements for painted backgrounds. 1,096 advertisements for painted backgrounds were reviewed in nine periodicals published in the United States of America from 1856 to 1903, all taken from the Richard and Ronay Menschel Library at George Eastman House. This material has been compiled into a comprehensive index revealing an increase in the use of painted background within portrait photography during this time period. The analysis of this research also provides information about the history of painted backgrounds, companies advertising backgrounds, sizes, styles, and costs of backgrounds, and ways companies shipped their backgrounds throughout this era.
    A Green Building Materials Assessment Tool For The Toronto Renovations Marketplace
    A Green Building Materials Assessment Tool For The Toronto Renovations Marketplace
    This research paper addresses the marketplace confusion and barriers that can prevent easy and well informed environmentally preferable material selections from being integrated into residential renovation projects in the Toronto region. It establishes a template for an easy-to-use material assessment toolbox that considers environmental impact categories that reveal variation between products of similar type and that are often considered together as "eco-friendly" options. The material assessment tool developed as a result of this research provides a resource that satisfies the Toronto-based needs of both client and contractor to assess and source environmentally preferable material choices common to most residential renovations work and to understand the up-front cost implications of these choices.
    A History of Marginalization - Africville: a Canadian Example of Forced Migration
    A History of Marginalization - Africville: a Canadian Example of Forced Migration
    The people of Africville, Nova Scotia were removed from their homes and had their community razed in the 1960s during an era of urban renewal. Africville, Nova Scotia will be explored as an example of forced resettlement in Canada. Specifically, this case study will display the extreme racism Black people in Nova Scotia have endured upon settlement and onward. This paper will trace their migration, while highlighting the exclusion from the dominant society – by the colonial government of Nova Scotia, through lack of access to quality land, hence denial of their livelihoods. The racialization of space and the dominance of whiteness theories will be applied to the case of Africville and Blacks in Nova Scotia. The migration of Black people to Nova Scotia is unique, in that they arrived in Canada during the same time as the early European settlers, yet are still treated as the Other.