Theses

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  • A 1.2 V, 8-bit, 100 MHz pipelined analog-to-digital converter
    A 1.2 V, 8-bit, 100 MHz pipelined analog-to-digital converter
    A 1.2 V, 8 bit, 100 MSample/Sec Pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter is designed in 0.18-μm standard CMOS technology. An emphasis was placed on observing the low voltage and low power design. The architecture of this ADC is 1 bit/stage pipelined configuration.With above specifications the designed ADC can be applicable for DVI flat-panel display; Giga bit Ethernet on copper, RGB to LCD converter and cable modem. This designed ADC can achieve SNDR 56dB in 100 MHz sampling frequency with 8 bit resolution. Total power dissipation is 40.6mW and INL is around 1 LSB and the maximum swing of the input is 1 Volt peak to peak which is almost rail-to-rail situation. The core area of the ADC excluding pads is around 0.25mm 2 .
    A 1.8V 1.1-GHZ Novel 8 X 8-Bit Digital Multiplier
    A 1.8V 1.1-GHZ Novel 8 X 8-Bit Digital Multiplier
    This thesis presents the design of an 8x8-bit novel multiplier, which can provide a better performance that its counterparts in the sense that it has a fraction of the silicon area, delay and power consumption of the common architectures such as the conventional linear array multipliers. At the system-level high performance is obtained by implementing a pair-wise multiplication algorithm. Also, parallel addition algorithm is used to add up partial products. Combining these two algorithms results in an efficient cell-based circuit realization. In the circuit-level, pseudo-NMOS full adder cell is chosen amongst the several existing full adder cells due to its superior speed and power performance. The performance of this design has been evaluated by comparing it to those of the recently reported multipliers. The results of the comparison, both in theory and simulation, prove the superiority of the proposed multiplier.
    A 10 Gbps 4-PAM CMOS serial link transmitter with pre-emphasis
    A 10 Gbps 4-PAM CMOS serial link transmitter with pre-emphasis
    This thesis presents the design of 10 Gbps 4-PAM CMOS serial link transmitters. A new area-power efficient fully differential CMOS current-mode serial link transmitter with a proposed 2/4-PAM signaling configuration and a new pre-emphasis scheme is presented. The pre-emphasis inthe analog domain and the use of de-emphasis approach decres pre-emphasis power and chip area. The high-speed operation of the transmitter is achieved from the small voltage swing of critical nodes of the transmitter, shunt peaking with active inductors, multiplexing-at-input approach, the distributed multiplexing nodes, and the low characteristic impedance of the channels. The fully differential and bidirectional current-mode signaling minimizes the noise injected to the power and ground rails and the electromagnetic interference exerted from the channels to neighboring devices. A PLL containing a proposed five-stage VCO is implemented to generate multi-phase on -chip clocks. The proposed VCO minimized the phase noise by keeping a constant rising and falling time. Simulation results demonstrate that the current received at the far end of a 10 cm FR-4 microstriop has a 4-PAM current eye width of 185 ps and eye hight of 1.21 mA. It consumes 57.6 mW power with differnetial delay block, or 19.2 mW power with inverter buffer chain. The total transistor area of the transmitter is 26.845 ....excluding the delay block.
    A 100 MHz - 1 GHz on-chip-programmable phase-locked-loop
    A 100 MHz - 1 GHz on-chip-programmable phase-locked-loop
    A programmable wide-range PLL has been designed that can provide 100-MHz to 1-GHz rail-to-rail digital clock signal from a 50-MHz reference clock. The architecture is appropriate for low-power design and is also power-efficient. The system is robust against temperature changes so that the stability of the system is guaranteed. Because of the differential configuration of the sub-blocks and using a voltage-controlled oscillator with a 1Ow. gain and a linear transfer function the system has an acceptable noise rejection.
    A Basic Income For All? Understanding the Basic Income Concept From the Perspectives of Community-Based Advocates
    A Basic Income For All? Understanding the Basic Income Concept From the Perspectives of Community-Based Advocates
    Basic income is a policy concept that has garnered considerable research attention over the past decade. However, very few studies have explored the concept from the perspectives of frontline service providers and anti-poverty activists. Grounded in structural social work and intersectionality theories, this qualitative study centres the insights of six individuals working and organizing in various community roles, including frontline social workers and grassroots anti-poverty activists. The findings from this study, gathered through a focus group, suggest that community responders to poverty are deeply unhappy with the current welfare state, possess mixed feelings about the possibilities of a basic income strategy, and are highly skeptical about the ethical implications and political motivations behind the Ontario government’s basic income pilot study. It is hoped that the findings from this research will complicate and deepen perspectives on a basic income while simultaneously contributing to the momentum behind this emerging policy intervention.
    A Block Cipher Design Using Recurrent Neural Networks
    A Block Cipher Design Using Recurrent Neural Networks
    As security becomes a necessary component for business applications in many areas, research of new cryptography technology is desirable, especially the highly secure and efficient data encryption technique. A new block cipher designed [sic] based on recurrent neural networks is proposed for the first time in the project. Recurrent neural networks have dynamics characteristics and can express functions of time. By introducing recurrent neural networks to cryptography, the proposed block cipher releases the constraint on the the length of secret key. The inherited high by parallel processing capability of neural networks can also improve the encryption performance greatly. The recurrent neural networks make the block cipher strong to resist different cryptanalysis attacks and to provide data integrity and authentication service at the same time. The design of the proposed block cipher is presented and analysed in detail. Simulation results provide illustrations. The proposed block cipher is flexible to be implemented either in software or in hardware for efficient data encryption purpose.
    A Blueprint for Recovery
    A Blueprint for Recovery
    Built environments inevitably serve as grand mnemonic elements that contain and transmit layers of culture and history. Failing to acknowledge the significance of difficult memories in the identity and culture of cities induces the gradual erosion of history as well as preventing movement toward a better future. In order to preserve the latent value in the identity of the city, architectural strategies should be implemented by which forgotten memories and hidden traces could be recalled to conscious narration. Recalling a story from the past, intentionally or unconsciously forgotten as a form of amnesia, can help re-contextualize memory images that awaken within us a new avenue to the future. This thesis intends to refine the dynamics of remembrance, illuminating the power of architecture as a medium for providing frames of perception and horizons of understanding of past experiences.
    A CAVE based 3d immersive interactive city with gesture interface
    A CAVE based 3d immersive interactive city with gesture interface
    This thesis presents a system that visualizes 3D city data and supports gesture interactions in a fully immersive Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE). To facilitate more natural interactions in this immersive virtual city, novel techniques are proposed for operations such as object selection, object manipulation, navigation and menu control. These operations form a basis of interactions for most Virtual Reality (VR) applications. The proposed techniques are predominantly controlled using gestures. We also propose the use of pattern recognition methods, specifically a Hidden Markov Model, to support real time dynamic gesture recognition and demonstrate its use for menu control in VR applications. Qualitative and quantitative user studies are conducted to evaluate the proposed techniques. The results of the user studies demonstrate that the interaction techniques for object selection and manipulation are measurably better than traditional techniques. The results also show that the proposed gesture based navigation and menu control techniques are preferred by experienced users. These findings can guide future user interface design in immersive environments.
    A CMOS voltage-mode image sensing system
    A CMOS voltage-mode image sensing system
    A CMOS image sensor consists of a light sensing region that converts photonic energy to an electrical signal and a peripheral circuitry that performs signal conditioning and post-processing. This project investgates the principle and design of CMOS active image sensors. The basic concepts and principle of CMOS image sensors are investigated. The advantages of CMOS image sensors over charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensors are presented. Both passive pixel sensors (PPS) and acive pixel sensors (APS) are examined in detail. The noise of CMOS image sensors is investigated and correlated double sampling (CDS) techniques are examined. The design of APS arrays, CDS circuits and 8-bit analog to-digital converters in TSMC-0.18μm 1.8V CMOS technology is presented. The simulation results and layout of the designed CMOS image sensor are presented.
    A Case Study Analysis Informing A Set Of Recommendations For The Successful Implementation of Carbon Pricing Instruments For Toronto, Canada
    A Case Study Analysis Informing A Set Of Recommendations For The Successful Implementation of Carbon Pricing Instruments For Toronto, Canada
    This paper provides a set of recommendations for how the City of Toronto can implement a successful carbon pricing instrument highlighting the importance of Municipal Governments in combating climate change. Through examining the successes and failures of 4 other cities around the world that have enacted carbon pricing instruments a set of criteria has been created. This set of criteria informs 4 specific recommendations for the City of Toronto.
    A Case Study Of 100 Resilient Cities: Does The 100 Resilient Cities Model Provide For A Robust Decision-Making Framework?
    A Case Study Of 100 Resilient Cities: Does The 100 Resilient Cities Model Provide For A Robust Decision-Making Framework?
    Background: Rapid urbanization continues to occur on a global scale with the majority of the world’s population residing in cities of various sizes and scales. Cities and their residents are becoming increasingly vulnerable to climate change and its impacts. Cities will continue to face social, political and economic impacts which particularly affect the most vulnerable populations. Municipal governments have focused upon resistance and control when dealing with complex problems such as natural disasters and their impacts. This research focuses on the 100 Resilient cities Model to assess its robustness as a decision-making framework in relation to resilience and adaptive governance. Methods: This researches relies upon 100 Resilient Cities as a case study. This project utilizes qualitative analysis of the 100 Resilient Cities model and critical assess its robustness through review of ecological and social-ecological resilience literature. Conclusions: This paper concludes that the 100 Resilient Cities model is well-grounded in ecological and social-ecological systems literature. There is potential for the 100 Resilient Cities model to provide urban planners and policymakers with an effective decision-making tool in order to solve complex problems which exist within municipal governance structures.
    A Case Study in Actual Building Performance and Energy Modeling with Real Weather Data
    A Case Study in Actual Building Performance and Energy Modeling with Real Weather Data
    As part of this study, an issue has been identified with regards to there being a performance gap with energy efficient buildings. This has been validated through literature review in the areas of occupancy behavior, modeling accuracy and reviewing energy consumption of energy efficient buildings. In order to analyze the error generated between predicted and actual energy performance, a case study approach has been adopted. The Ron Joyce Centre is a LEED Gold Certified building that is part of the McMaster University campus in Burlington. Actual energy performance data has been collected along with detailed drawings to analyze its predicted energy performance using real weather data over a two-year period in eQUEST. The results indicate that eQuest is able to predict electrical consumption within 0.72% of actual on an annual basis. However, natural gas consumption is more erratic and inconsistent based on heating degree days and has fluctuating values with differences ranging between 21% to 4.5% on monthly basis. The overall predicted energy consumption for 2012 is 1096133 kWh and 33227 m3. It is not possible to root the cause for this discrepancy with limited data, except to utilize two weather files in generating energy models. The default 30 year average from CTMY for Toronto and another to account for the maximum number of HDD, offering owners a range of natural gas consumption.