Theses

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  • A Finding Aid For The Models' Guild of Philadelphia Collection
    A Finding Aid For The Models' Guild of Philadelphia Collection
    The following is a professional practice project which focuses on the research, methodology, and development of a finding aid for the Models' Guild of Philadelphia Collection, which currently resides in the Richard and Ronay Menschel Library at George Eastman House as part of the Dr. Louis Walton Sipley collection which was donated by 3M in 1977. The contents of this collection include business correspondence documents, ephemera, photographs, and other material dating from 1946 to approximately 1963. This project was undertaken with the goal of organizing, and inventorying the collections that it would be more accessible to researchers within the Library at George Eastman House.
    A Finite Element Formulation Of Active Constrained-Layer Functionally Graded Beam
    A Finite Element Formulation Of Active Constrained-Layer Functionally Graded Beam
    Active constrained-layer damping (ACLD) treatment is the combination of passive and active features in the control of structural vibrations. A three-layer structure that consists of a functionally graded (FG) host beam, with a bonded viscoelastic layer and a constraining piezoelectric fiber-reinforce composite (PFRC) laminate is modeled and analyzed. The assumptions for modeling the system are the application of Timoshenko beam theory for the host beam and PFRC laminate, and a higher-order beam theory for the viscoelastic layer. The formulation is assumed to have field variables that are expressed as polynomials through the thickness of the structure and linear interpolation across the span. The extended Hamilton's principle is utilized to determine the system equations of motion, which are then solved using the Newmark time-integration scheme. Many support conditions such as fully- and partial-clamped cantilevered, partially clamped-clamped and simply-supported are analyzed. The effects of ply angle orientaion, as well as FG properties, are also carefully examined.
    A Framework Design for Collaborative GIS Applications: Based on Hybrid Architecture
    A Framework Design for Collaborative GIS Applications: Based on Hybrid Architecture
    Geographical information systems (GIS) software tools that support synchronous collaboration efforts among distributed decision-making participants can be very useful in many application areas, such as urban planning, engineering design, disaster and emergency response, and distant learning. However, most existing GIS tools do not provide adequate support for group interaction on decision-making and design scenarios. Early efforts on developing collaborative GIS tools have focused on collaborative geospatial information sharing and presentation in a group environment, mostly adapted to centralized client-server architecture for specific applications. This thesis presents the results of a research project, aiming at providing such GIS software tools over the Internet. Based on the analysis of two mainstream architectures used in collaborative applications: centralized architecture and replicated architecture, a hybrid architecture is selected to develop a collaborative GIS framework as the platform for prototyping the aforementioned GIS tools. The discussion focuses on synchronous collaboration where people interact with each other using the system at the same time from different places. The prototype system, called GeoLink, addresses some important design and development issues such as session management and floor control through a message sending approach.
    A Framework for Early Design Process Stages Based on an Analogy to Evolution
    A Framework for Early Design Process Stages Based on an Analogy to Evolution
    Recent research has revealed several shortcomings of design processes with respect to modern contexts. Two of these are complexity and sustainability. Design problems are becoming increasingly complex, to the point where designers can be easily overwhelmed. Sustainability, while recognized as pivotal to future human progress and well-being, remains largely disconnected from design processes. Current practices in the field of sustainability are not integrated into the design process and thus, are often carried out only as after-the-fact addenda. The goal of this research is to address these two problems with current design processes. It has long been known that analogies are useful and help to reduce complexity by rooting a topic into pre-existing knowledge of the user. Patterns have also been shown to be useful in helping solve complex problems in engineering, as well as architecture and computer science. Therefore, this dissertation proposes a new design framework which: reduces problem complexity through the use of an analogy and patterns, makes provisions for emergent properties within the patterns and the framework, and provides a means for generating solutions with aspects of sustainability via the patterns and evaluation criteria. The analogical framework, based on similarities found in the phenomena and processes between natural systems (nature) and design, is then used to formulate a new model for describing the design of a product, the Design Genome. The main focus of this dissertation is to use this model as a basis for a new method of concept generation, the Design by DNA method, and concept evaluation, the Fitness Space method. It is shown that the Fitness Space method has the potential to solve many, if not all, of the downfalls of conventional evaluation methods. A pilot experiment testing the Design by DNA method against previously known design methods is conducted and demonstrates the feasibility for a full-scale experiment. Even with small population sizes, results from the experiment show promise that the DbD method is useful as a tool for the concept generation process. Based on the work done, it appears that Design by DNA and the Fitness Space are promising approaches for improving design processes.
    A Great Variety of New and Fine Designs: Advertisements for Painted Backgrounds, 1856--1903
    A Great Variety of New and Fine Designs: Advertisements for Painted Backgrounds, 1856--1903
    The painted background, as a piece of photographic equipment, has rarely bee studied apart form its decorative function in portraits. This thesis addresses the history, construction, and use of the painted background within studio portrait photography during the latter half of the nineteenth century as revealed from examining advertisements for painted backgrounds. 1,096 advertisements for painted backgrounds were reviewed in nine periodicals published in the United States of America from 1856 to 1903, all taken from the Richard and Ronay Menschel Library at George Eastman House. This material has been compiled into a comprehensive index revealing an increase in the use of painted background within portrait photography during this time period. The analysis of this research also provides information about the history of painted backgrounds, companies advertising backgrounds, sizes, styles, and costs of backgrounds, and ways companies shipped their backgrounds throughout this era.
    A Green Building Materials Assessment Tool For The Toronto Renovations Marketplace
    A Green Building Materials Assessment Tool For The Toronto Renovations Marketplace
    This research paper addresses the marketplace confusion and barriers that can prevent easy and well informed environmentally preferable material selections from being integrated into residential renovation projects in the Toronto region. It establishes a template for an easy-to-use material assessment toolbox that considers environmental impact categories that reveal variation between products of similar type and that are often considered together as "eco-friendly" options. The material assessment tool developed as a result of this research provides a resource that satisfies the Toronto-based needs of both client and contractor to assess and source environmentally preferable material choices common to most residential renovations work and to understand the up-front cost implications of these choices.
    A History of Marginalization - Africville: a Canadian Example of Forced Migration
    A History of Marginalization - Africville: a Canadian Example of Forced Migration
    The people of Africville, Nova Scotia were removed from their homes and had their community razed in the 1960s during an era of urban renewal. Africville, Nova Scotia will be explored as an example of forced resettlement in Canada. Specifically, this case study will display the extreme racism Black people in Nova Scotia have endured upon settlement and onward. This paper will trace their migration, while highlighting the exclusion from the dominant society – by the colonial government of Nova Scotia, through lack of access to quality land, hence denial of their livelihoods. The racialization of space and the dominance of whiteness theories will be applied to the case of Africville and Blacks in Nova Scotia. The migration of Black people to Nova Scotia is unique, in that they arrived in Canada during the same time as the early European settlers, yet are still treated as the Other.
    A Hybrid Multiresolution Texture Segmentation and its Application to Ikonos Satellite Imagery
    A Hybrid Multiresolution Texture Segmentation and its Application to Ikonos Satellite Imagery
    In this thesis a method for segmenting textured images using Gabor filters is presented. One of the most recent approaches for texture segmentation and analysis is multi-channel filtering. There are several applicable choices as filter banks which are used for textured images. Gaussian filters modulated by exponential or by sinusoidal filters, known as Gabor filters, have been proven to be very usefyl for texture analysis for the images containing specific frequency and orientation characteristics. Resembling the human visual cortical cells, Gabor function is a popular sub-band filter for multi-channel decompositon. Optimum joint spatial/spatial frequency uncertainty principle and its ability to recognize and pass specific frequencies and orientations are attributes of Gabor filter that make it more attractive. Gabor function with these attributes could simulate the task of simple visual cells in the cortex. Gabor function has several parameters that determine the sub-band Gabor filter and must be determined accurately to extract the features precisely for texture discrimination. A wide selection range for each parameter exists and many combinations of these parameters are possible. Accurate selection and combination of values for the parameters are of crucial importance. Hence a difficult goal is minimizing the number of filters. On the other hand a variety of approaches of texture analysis and recognition have been presented in remote sensing applications, including land cover/land use classification and urban scene segmentation. With the avaiability of very high-resolution commercial satellite imagery such as IKONOS, it is possible to obtain detailed information on urban land use and change detection that are of particular interest to urban and regional planners. In this thesis considering the attributes of human visual system, a hybrid algorithm is implemented using multi-channel decomposition by Gabor filter bank for feature extraction in conjunction with Artificial Neural Networks for both feature reduction and texture segmentation. Three approaches are implemented to optimize Gabor filter bank for image segmentation. Eventually the proposed method is successfully applied for segmentation of IKONOS satellite images.
    A Hybrid Rate Adaptation Framework for MPEG-4 FGS Video Streaming Over IP
    A Hybrid Rate Adaptation Framework for MPEG-4 FGS Video Streaming Over IP
    There are increasing demands for real-time streaming video applications over the Internet. However, the current generation Internet was not originally designed for real-time streaming applications and only provides best-effort services, so there are many challenges in the deployment of video streaming applications over the Internet. This thesis investigates a hybrid end-to-end rate adaptation framework that provides application-level enhancements to achieve Quality of Service (QoS) for MPEG-4 FGS-Encoded video bandwidth on the path and the terminal process capabilities based on the packet-loss ratio and then determine their subscribing rate of video streams. The sender adjusts the transmission rate based on the packet-loss ratio and then determine their subscribing rate of video streams. The sender adjusts the transmission rate based on the proportion of load status feedbacks from the receivers. The sender and the receivers act together to minimize the possibility of network congestion by adjusting the transmission rate to match the network conditions. This framework achieves inter-receiver fairness in a heterogeneous multicast environment and improves QoS stability for MPEG-4 FGS video streaming over the Internet.
    A Laser Scanner And Void Visualizer For Use In A Search And Rescue Environment
    A Laser Scanner And Void Visualizer For Use In A Search And Rescue Environment
    Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) environments present many risks to emergency first responders. Technologies that can allow people to explore dangerous locations in great detail while being physically separate from them are of great value. This thesis provides an intuitive 3D viewing application called Voidviz for just that purpose, with features specifically designed for USAR and bomb identification. It is tested using 3D data gathered by two devices: a computerized theodolite, and a custom built laser scanner. The theodolite was found to be impractical for scanning dangerous locations due to its low resolution and slow speed, but the custom laser scanner was able to gather high resolution data at a useful speed. This thesis shows that useful data can be derived from sufficiently detailed simulations of voids within building collapses and unexploded explosive devices. This data can be used to increase the situational awareness of first responders.
    A Little Birdie Told Me: Journalistic and Individualistic Twitter Use of Local Television News Reporters
    A Little Birdie Told Me: Journalistic and Individualistic Twitter Use of Local Television News Reporters
    Twitter is a social networking platform that connects its users to information in the form of posts that are a maximum of 140 characters long. Twitter has become an important method for news distribution for both print and broadcast news stations. News organizations, individuals and journalists all use Twitter for different purposes, which raises questions as to how local television news reporters tweets both as journalists and as individuals. This study analyzes the tweets of the personal Twitter accounts of five local television news reporters from each of the local television news stations in Toronto (City News, CTV Toronto, Global Toronto, CP24 and CBC Toronto). Findings reveal the existence of blurring of personal (individualistic) and professional (journalistic) uses of Twitter. The tweets from the personal Twitter accounts of local television news reporters in Toronto suggest that while these reporters still take their gatekeeping roles as journalists seriously, they sometimes take advantage of Twitter as a platform that encourages public declaration and personal observations