Research

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  • A Method for Design of Modular Reconfigurable Machine Tools
    A Method for Design of Modular Reconfigurable Machine Tools
    Presented in this paper is a method for the design of modular reconfigurable machine tools (MRMTs). An MRMT is capable of using a minimal number of modules through reconfiguration to perform the required machining tasks for a family of parts. The proposed method consists of three steps: module identification, module determination, and layout synthesis. In the first step, the module components are collected from a family of general-purpose machines to establish a module library. In the second step, for a given family of parts to be machined, a set of needed modules are selected from the module library to construct a desired reconfigurable machine tool. In the third step, a final machine layout is decided though evaluation by considering a number of performance indices. Based on this method, a software package has been developed that can design an MRMT for a given part family., Xu, Z., Xi, F., Liu, L., & Chen, L. (2017). A method for design of modular reconfigurable machine tools. Machines, 5(1), 5., This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotic Machine Tools.
    A New Look at Retest Learning in Older Adults: Learning in the Absence of Item-Specific Effects
    A New Look at Retest Learning in Older Adults: Learning in the Absence of Item-Specific Effects
    We investigated retest learning (i.e., performance improvement through retest practice) in the absence of item- specific effects (i.e., learning through memorizing or becoming familiar with specific items) with older adults. Thirty-one older adults (ages 60–82 years, M = 71.10, SD = 6.27) participated in an eight-session self-guided retest program. To eliminate item-specific effects, parallel versions of representative psychometric measures for Induc- tive Reasoning, Perceptual Speed, and Visual Attention were developed and administered across retest sessions. The results showed substantial non-item-specific retest learning, even controlling for anxiety, suggesting that re- test learning in older adults can occur at a more conceptual level.
    A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study
    A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study
    This study investigates the use of gallium (Ga) based glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) as a possible alternative adhesive in sternal fixation, post sternotomy surgery. The glass series consists of a Control (CaO–ZnO–SiO2), and LGa-1 and LGa-2 which contain Ga at the expense of zinc (Zn) in 0.08 mol% increments. The additions of Ga resulted in increased working time (75 s to 137 s) and setting time (113 to 254 s). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that this was a direct result of increased unreacted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the reduction of crosslink formation during cement maturation. LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) resulted in an altered ion release profile, particularly for 30 days analysis, with maximum Ca2+, Zn2+, Si4+ and Ga3+ ions released into the distilled water. The additions of Ga resulted in increased roughness and decreased contact angles during cement maturation. The presence of Ga has a positive effect on the compressive strength of the samples with strengths increasing over 10 MPa at 7 days analysis compared to the 1 day results. The additions of Ga had relatively no effect on the flexural strength. Tensile testing of bovine sterna proved that the LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) are comparable to the Control samples., Alhalawani, A. M. F., Curran, D. J., Pingguan-Murphy, B., Boyd, D., & Towler, M. R. (2013). A novel glass polyalkenoate cement for fixation and stabilisation of the ribcage, post sternotomy surgery: An ex-vivo study. Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 4(4), 329-357. doi:10.3390/jfb4040329
    A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex
    A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex
    Vapex (vapor extraction of heavy oil and bitumen) is a promising recovery technology because it consumes low energy, and is very environmentally-friendly. The dispersion of solvents into heavy oil and bitumen is a crucial transport property governing Vapex. The accurate determination of solvent dispersion in Vapex is essential to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery as well to optimize the field operations. In this work, a novel technique is developed to experimentally determine the concentration-dependent dispersion coefficient of a solvent in Vapex process. The principles of variational calculus are utilized in conjunction with a mass transfer model of the experimental Vapex process. A computational algorithm is developed to optimally compute solvent dispersion as a function of its concentration in heavy oil. The developed technique is applied to Vapex utilizing propane as a solvent. The results show that dispersion of propane is a unimodal function of its concentration in bitumen., Abukhalifeh, H., Lohi, A., & Upreti, S. R. (2009). A novel technique to determine concentration-dependent solvent dispersion in vapex. Energies, 2(4), 851-872. doi:10.3390/en20400851
    A Picturesque Photographic Tour Through Scotland
    A Picturesque Photographic Tour Through Scotland
    Originally published in: genre: An International Journal of Literature and the Arts, Vol 29: Arrivals and Departures. Ed. by Whitney Donaldson. Long Beach, California: California State University Department of Comparative Literature & Classics, 2009. Also available at the publisher's website: http://www.csulb.edu/colleges/cla/departments/complit-classics/genre/index.htm
    A Qualitative Framework for Evaluating Participation on the Geoweb
    A Qualitative Framework for Evaluating Participation on the Geoweb
    The participatory Geoweb emerges from the synthesis of map-based online applications and Web 2.0 concepts such as user-generated content, enhanced interactivity, and cloud computing. The result is a wide range of tools and projects using these tools to communicate, collaborate, deliberate, and inform spatial decision making. This article draws upon the literature in participatory geographic information systems to propose the “3E Framework,” which provides both a structured conceptual model and a practical tool for the evaluation of projects on the participatory Geoweb. The framework deconstructs participation on the Geoweb into the provider and public realms and represents the engagement, empowerment, and enactment processes. It includes 20 evaluation questions that are derived from themes in the literature., Full journal issue is open-access and available at http://www.urisa.org/resources/urisa-journal/. Download option provides an excerpt including journal title page, ToC, and this article only.
    A Review on Breathing Behaviors of Metal-Organic-Frameworks (MOFs) for Gas Adsorption
    A Review on Breathing Behaviors of Metal-Organic-Frameworks (MOFs) for Gas Adsorption
    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of microporous materials that possess framework flexibility, large surface areas, “tailor-made” framework functionalities, and tunable pore sizes. These features empower MOFs superior performances and broader application spectra than those of zeolites and phosphine-based molecular sieves. In parallel with designing new structures and new chemistry of MOFs, the observation of unique breathing behaviors upon adsorption of gases or solvents stimulates their potential applications as host materials in gas storage for renewable energy. This has attracted intense research energy to understand the causes at the atomic level, using in situ X-ray diffraction, calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. This article is developed in the following order: first to introduce the definition of MOFs and the observation of their framework flexibility. Second, synthesis routes of MOFs are summarized with the emphasis on the hydrothermal synthesis, owing to the environmental-benign and economically availability of water. Third, MOFs exhibiting breathing behaviors are summarized, followed by rationales from thermodynamic viewpoint. Subsequently, effects of various functionalities on breathing behaviors are appraised, including using post-synthetic modification routes. Finally, possible framework spatial requirements of MOFs for yielding breathing behaviors are highlighted as the design strategies for new syntheses., Alhamami, M., Doan, H., & Cheng, C. (2014). A review on breathing behaviors of metal-organic-frameworks (MOFs) for gas adsorption. Basel: MDPI AG. doi:10.3390/ma7043198, (This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
    A Scalable GeoWeb Tool for Argumentation Mapping
    A Scalable GeoWeb Tool for Argumentation Mapping
    Public participation geographic information systems (PPGIS) support collaborative decision-making in the public realm. PPGIS provide advanced communication, deliberation, and conflict resolution mecha nisms to engage diverse stakeholder groups. Many of the functional characteristics of Web 2.0 echo basic PPGIS functions including the authoring, linking, and sharing of volunteered geographic information. However, with the increasing popularity of geospatial applications on the Web comes a need to develop concepts for scalable, reliable, and easy-to-maintain tools. In this paper, we propose a cloud computing implementation of a scalable argumentation mapping tool. The tool also illustrates the opportunities of applying a Web 2.0 model to PPGIS. The searching, linking, authoring, tagging, extension, and signalling (SLATES) functions are associated with PPGIS functionality to produce a participatory GeoWeb tool for deliberative democracy.
    A Sketch of the Digital Page
    A Sketch of the Digital Page
    With today’s increasingly digitized culture, we are witnessing an ideological shift toward paperless communication and the emergence of the digital page. Yet, we continue to conceptualize the visual structure of information using the language of print, imposing unnecessary limitations. Recent efforts in e-book development most vividly highlight the need for study of the distinct features of the electronic format and, in turn, the associated range of effects on the way we interact with information. In the first half of the present paper, I situate the notion of the page in multiple socio-historic and theoretical contexts, rationalizing its broad viability as a visual solution for the digital display environment. In the second half, I describe some of the characteristics of digital pages, as viewed with a conventional personal computer, using examples from a cross-section of functional contexts, including Adobe Reader, NYTimes.com, Twitter, YouTube, and Google Maps. Drawing on the field of information design, I apply visual analysis to general characteristics (an exploratory term comprising dimensions, blank space, colour, content, printability, and interactivity), composition, and typographic legibility. Based on a very limited data set, my findings indicate that digital pages currently have a distinctly vertical orientation, requiring extensive use of scrolling, and do not utilize the full area of the computer screen. They offer a dynamic multimedia experience that does not lend itself to printing. Simple, streamlined grid structures and proven proportional relationships are found to produce the most balanced and accessible compositions, while typographic legibility is found to suffer from excessive column width. I thus generate an introductory sketch of the basic structure of the digital page to help advance our understanding of the electronic interface
    A Study of High Frequency Ultrasound Scattering from Non-nucleated Biological Specimens
    A Study of High Frequency Ultrasound Scattering from Non-nucleated Biological Specimens
    Online version of an article originally published as: A study of high frequency ultrasound scattering from non-nucleated biological specimens. Omar Falou, Ralph E. Baddour, George Nathanael, Gregory J. Czarnota, J. Carl Kumaradas and Michael C. Kolios (2008) The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124(5): EL278-EL283 Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2987462
    A Systems Perspective on Volunteered Geographic Information
    A Systems Perspective on Volunteered Geographic Information
    A novel and diverse type of geographic information, volunteered geographic information (VGI) is proving to be more than just a new type of data. In an effort to contribute to the conceptualization of the burgeoning field of VGI research, we propose to review selected definitions and debates around Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Traditional geographic information emerges from the interplay of the components of GIS: hardware, software, data, and people. It is shaped by the processing of geographic data through a series of functions for input, management, analysis, and presentation. Consequently, we suggest framing VGI as the information product originating from a "VGI system". The systems perspective takes into account the hardware and software used to set up a VGI initiative; the characteristics of the data volunteered by users; and the application context including the people involved in purposefully creating VGI as the system output. For example, VGI in citizen science emerges from numerical measurements (e.g., private weather stations) or categorical user input (e.g., invasive species observations), while VGI in map-based discussion forums comes from text input or multimedia submissions. In fact, VGI is only "voluntary" in that it is the result of sourcing and processing volunteered geographic data. Taking this broader perspective of VGI as the output of a system will allow us to better understand different types of VGI and the functionality needed to create them. It offers a comprehensive methodology for research into VGI. Ultimately, we may be able to design more effective systems for successful VGI initiatives., The presentation is attached - click download link to access PDF file.
    A Systems View of Bioinspiration: Bridging the Gaps
    A Systems View of Bioinspiration: Bridging the Gaps
    This paper provides an overview of biom*, an umbrella term for biomimicry, biomimetics, bio-inspired design and related fields. The paper explores three levels of biom* bridging, discusses benefits and implications of adopting a systems perspective, and proposes initiatives for further development. Searching for ‘sweet spots’ leveraging the synergy between aspiration, our growing knowledge of natural systems, and the market economy will improve the ability of biom* to deliver meaningful and impactful solutions.