Research

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  • A Tale of Two Motives: Endogenous Time Preference, Cash-in-Advance Constraints and Monetary Policy
    A Tale of Two Motives: Endogenous Time Preference, Cash-in-Advance Constraints and Monetary Policy
    This paper demonstrates the effects of modeling an endogenous rate of time preference and two cash-in-advance constraints. If the constraint is levied on consumption and capital goods, time preference effects are neutral and cash-in-advance constraint effects invert the Tobin Effect. If the constraint applies solely to consumption goods, opposing motives are offsetting and monetary policy is super neutral., Kam, E. (2013). A Tale of Two Motives: Endogenous Time Preference, Cash-in-Advance Constraints and Monetary Policy. ME, 04(06), pp.427-430.
    A Tale of Two Systems: Success and Failure in a Single Information System Implementation
    A Tale of Two Systems: Success and Failure in a Single Information System Implementation
    This paper presents a case study of an information system implementation. The system, a computerized student record system, was introduced into a small university when the university opened. Unlike many other case studies of systems implementation, there was no existing system to replace, thus it was expected that there would be little resistance to the system. Successful implementation was anticipated, particularly as the systems designers were also the primary users. An evaluation of the system shows this was not the case. Two groups of users are identified, one pleased with the system, the other dissatisfied. The secondary users did not display their dissatisfaction with the system by resistance, however. They used the system frequently, but were denied the full access they required to do their jobs. Ostensibly due to technical limitations of the system, the primary users acted as gatekeepers. An examination of the culture and management structure of the university reveals strong political motivations for the primary users to exert power over the secondary users. Markus’s (1983) interpretation of interaction theory is used to discuss the political implications of the system design. It is concluded that senior management must be aware of the importance of information systems to their organizations, and understand the potential for designers to use these systems as sources of power. The case study is reconstructed from the author’s experiences as a staff member at the university during the system implementation, initially as a primary user of the system (but not an active member of the system design team), and later as a secondary user. The case is evaluated from the perspective of both user groups, using a framework derived from the literature on information systems failure and successful systems implementation., Middleton, Catherine. (1995). A Tale of Two Systems: Success and Failure in a Single Information System Implementation. (Working Paper 20-97). North York, ON: OBIR/Schulich School of Business.
    A Techno-economic Analysis of Heat-Pump Entering Fluid Temperatures, and CO2 Emissions for Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump Systems
    A Techno-economic Analysis of Heat-Pump Entering Fluid Temperatures, and CO2 Emissions for Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump Systems
    Hybrid ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) that include a ground loop for the base heating and cooling needs, and an auxiliary system (natural gas boiler and electric air conditioner) for peak loads, are an economical and environmentally cleaner alternative to conventional systems. For a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system, the choice of entering fluid temperature (EFT) to the heat pump plays a crucial role in determining system efficiency of and operating costs. To continue expanding the knowledge base of efficiently sizing GSHPs as a component of a hybrid system, this study explores the economic effects of choosing an EFT for a heat pump. In addition, system CO2 emissions are calculated and analyzed for a variety of building types. Using a computational approach to size hybrid GSHP systems recently published in [Alavy et al., Renewable Energy, 57 (2013) 404-412], the effects of optimizing EFT for a heat pump, and CO2 emissions were studied for a variety of commercial installations. In the present study, using ten buildings situated in Southern Ontario, Canada, by varying cooling and heating EFTs for a heat pump, savings ranging from 0.47% to 3.6% can be achieved compared to using a fixed EFT pairfor a heat pump. In addition, comparisons were made between the CO2 emissions of optimally sized (based on economic factors) hybrid GHSPs and those of non-hybridized GSHPs. Both the optimally-sized hybrid GHSPs, and the non-hybridized GSHPs significantly reduce CO2 emissions compared to the use of conventional natural gas/electrical systems. The additional environmental benefit of the non-hybridized GSHPs over that of the optimally-sized hybrid GSHPs was found to be negligible in most cases analyzed., Nguyen, H. V., Law, X. E., Zhou, X., Leong, W. H., & Dworkin, S. B. (2016). A techno-economic analysis of heat-pump entering fluid temperatures and CO2 emissions for hybrid ground source heat pump systems. Geothermics, 61, 24-34. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2016.01.013
    A Trade Policy Perspective On Import Quotas And The Substitution Effect
    A Trade Policy Perspective On Import Quotas And The Substitution Effect
    This paper focuses on the necessary conditions required in order to exploit the substitution effect which arises when there is a shift in demand induced by import quotas under imperfect competition. The protective policy succeeds if the substitution effect shifts in favor of goods produced by the domestic industry and this shift offsets foreign firms quota rents and the decrease in consumer welfare. While extant literature tends to focus on welfare loss associated with import quotas, in this paper social welfare analytics are produced and a trade policy decision rule for net welfare gain is obtained.
    A biomechanical assessment of modular and monoblock revision hip implants using FE analysis and strain gage measurements
    A biomechanical assessment of modular and monoblock revision hip implants using FE analysis and strain gage measurements
    Background The bone loss associated with revision surgery or pathology has been the impetus for developing modular revision total hip prostheses. Few studies have assessed these modular implants quantitatively from a mechanical standpoint.Methods Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models were developed to mimic a hip implant alone (Construct A) and a hip implant-femur configuration (Construct B). Bonded contact was assumed for all interfaces to simulate long-term bony ongrowth and stability. The hip implants modeled were a Modular stem having two interlocking parts (Zimmer Modular Revision Hip System, Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA) and a Monoblock stem made from a single piece of material (Stryker Restoration HA Hip System, Stryker, Mahwah, NJ, USA). Axial loads of 700 and 2000 N were applied to Construct A and 2000 N to Construct B models. Stiffness, strain, and stress were computed. Mechanical tests using axial loads were used for Construct A to validate the FE model. Strain gages were placed along the medial and lateral side of the hip implants at 8 locations to measure axial strain distribution.Results There was approximately a 3% average difference between FE and experimental strains for Construct A at all locations for the Modular implant and in the proximal region for the Monoblock implant. FE results for Construct B showed that both implants carried the majority (Modular, 76%; Monoblock, 66%) of the 2000 N load relative to the femur. FE analysis and experiments demonstrated that the Modular implant was 3 to 4.5 times mechanically stiffer than the Monoblock due primarily to geometric differences.Conclusions This study provides mechanical characteristics of revision hip implants at sub-clinical axial loads as an initial predictor of potential failure., Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2010, 5:34. doi:10.1186/1749-799X-5-34
    A changing landscape in collection development
    A changing landscape in collection development
    Ryerson University Library has been exploring different just-in-time acquisition models that provide us with cost-effective ways to purchase monograph titles with guaranteed usage. Based on our experience with Ebrary on the PDA (Patron Driven Acquisitions) Pilot, and with YBP on the DDA (Demand Driven Acquisitions) project, this discussion will focus on the theory behind our approach, the technicalities of implementation, and implications for future collection development strategies.
    A computational study of soot formation and flame structure of coflow laminar methane/air diffusion flames under microgravity and normal gravity
    A computational study of soot formation and flame structure of coflow laminar methane/air diffusion flames under microgravity and normal gravity
    A numerical study is conducted of methane-air coflow diffusion flames at microgravity (μg) and normal gravity (lg), and comparisons are made with experimental data in the literature. The model employed uses a detailed gas phase chemical kinetic mechanism that includes PAH formation and growth, and is coupled to a sectional soot particle dynamics model. The model is able to accurately predict the trends observed experimentally with reduction of gravity without any tuning of the model for different flames. The microgravity sooting flames were found to have lower temperatures and higher volume fraction than their normal gravity counterparts. In the absence of gravity, the flame radii increase due to elimination of buoyance forces and reduction of flow velocity, which is consistent with experimental observations. Soot formation along the wings is seen to be surface growth dominated, while PAH condensation plays a more major role on centerline soot formation. Surface growth and PAH growth increase in microgravity primarily due to increases in the residence time inside the flame. The rate of increase of surface growth is more significant compared to PAH growth, which causes soot distribution to shift from the centerline of the flame to the wings in microgravity. Keywords: laminar diffusion flame,methane-air,microgravity, soot formation, numerical modelling, Veshkini, R., & Dworkin, S. B. (2017). A computational study of soot formation and flame structure of coflow laminar methane/air diffusion flames under microgravity and normal gravity. Combustion Theory and Modelling. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2017.1308558
    A mixed methods study of the work patterns of full-time nurse practitioners in Canadian nursing homes
    A mixed methods study of the work patterns of full-time nurse practitioners in Canadian nursing homes
    The aim of this study was to explore the integration of the nurse practitioner role in Canadian nursing homes to enable its full potential to be realised for resident and family care. The objective was to determine nurse practitioners' patterns of work activities. Nurse practitioners were introduced in Canadian nursing homes a decade ago on a pilot basis. In recent years, government and nursing home sector interest in the role has grown along with the need for data to inform planning efforts. The study used a sequential mixed methods design using a national survey followed by case studies. A national survey of nurse practitioners included demographic items and the EverCare Nurse Practitioner Role and Activity Scale. Following the survey, case studies were conducted in four nursing homes. Data were collected using individual and focus group interviews, document reviews and field notes. Twenty-three of a target population of 26 nurse practitioners responded to the survey, two-thirds of whom provided services in nursing homes with one site and the remainder in nursing homes with as many as four sites. On average, nurse practitioners performed activities in communicator, clinician, care manager/coordinator and coach/educator subscales at least three to four times per week and activities in the collaborator subscale once a week. Of the 43 activities, nurse practitioners performed daily, most were in the clinician and communicator subscales. Case study interviews involved 150 participants. Findings complemented those of the survey and identified additional leadership activities. Nurse practitioners undertake a range of primary health care and advanced practice activities which they adapt to meet the unique needs of nursing homes. Knowledge of work patterns enables nursing homes to implement the full range of nurse practitioner roles and activities to enhance resident and family care., Martin‐Misener, R., Donald, F., Wickson‐Griffiths, A., Akhtar‐Danesh, N., Ploeg, J., Brazil, K., . . . Taniguchi, A. (2015). A mixed methods study of the work patterns of full‐time nurse practitioners in nursing homes. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(9-10), 1327-1337. doi:10.1111/jocn.12741
    A multi-dasymetric mapping approach for tourism
    A multi-dasymetric mapping approach for tourism
    The challenge of measuring at municipal level tourism density has been a daunting task for both statisticians and geographers. The reason of this is enforced by the fact that administrative areas, such as municipalities, tend to be large spatial administrative units, sharing a large demographic asymmetry of tourist demand within the municipality. The rationale is that geographic characteristics such as coastal line, climate and vegetation, play a crucial role in tourist offer, leaning towards the conclusion that traditional census at administrative level are simply not enough to interpret the true distribution of tourism data. A more quantifiable method is necessary to assess the distribution of socio-economic data. This is developed by means of a dasymetric approach adding on the advantages of multi-temporal comparison. This paper adopts a dasymetric approach for defining tourism density per land use types using the CORINE Land Cover dataset. A density map for tourism is calculated, creating a modified areal weighting (MAW) approach to assess the distribution of tourism density per administrative municipality. This distribution is then assessed as a bidirectional layer on the land use datasets for two temporal stamps: 2000 and 2006, which leads to (i) a consistent map on a more accurate distribution of tourism in Algarve, (ii) the calculation of tourism density surfaces, and (iii) a multi-locational and temporal assessment through density cross-tabulation. Finally a geovisual interpretation of locational analysis of tourism change in Algarve for the last decade is created. This integrative spatial methodology offers unique characteristics for more accurate decision making at regional level, bringing an integrative methodology to the forefront of linking tourism with the spatio-temporal clusters formed in rapidly changing economic regions.
    A multidisciplinary collaborative web site for cardiovascular surgery
    A multidisciplinary collaborative web site for cardiovascular surgery
    Key Points: * Patients, healthcare providers, and students have differing information needs in regard to surgical procedures. * Often, separate information sources are designed for each group, resulting in fragmented information. * Interactive, multidisciplinary, collaborative Web site is being developed to address the needs of all members of the healthcare team. Cardiovascular surgical (CVS) settings encompass shared physical spaces that are accessible to patients, physicians, nurses, residents, and other members of the healthcare team.1 Dynamic, fluid interactions are constantly occurring among various members of the team at any point in time.1 Within these interactions, each member seeks to meet unique information and communication needs. For example, patients require information and support for learning and application of new self-care behavior skills, residents and students require mentorship to guide practice, and nurses and physicians require up-to-date empirical and theoretical information to revise and evaluate existing care endeavors. Traditionally, separate resources have been designed and administered for each member of the healthcare team; however, a single intervention that addresses the needs of each member of a multidisciplinary team has not been designed or evaluated.2,3 We developed an interactive, multidisciplinary, collaborative Web site as an intervention designed to address the needs of all members of the healthcare team, including patients. The Web site addresses the needs of postoperative patients, cardiovascular medical residents, nursing students, and other trainees, as well as nurses and physicians. In doing so, the site mimics the collective functioning of the existing healthcare teams within a shared physical space. The Web site can be accessed by different members of the healthcare team anywhere there is a wireless connection, and so it does not depend on shared physical space. Furthermore, it allows for interactive discussion through online chat rooms and open forums. As a result of this Web site, we anticipate an increase in the quality of patient care that is delivered within the CVS setting., Fredericks, S. (2015). A multidisciplinary collaborative web site for cardiovascular surgery. Computers Informatics Nursing, 33(7), 273-277. DOI: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000167.
    A note on cash-in-advance constraints in continuous time
    A note on cash-in-advance constraints in continuous time
    This paper demonstrates a robust proof of the continuous-time transformations of Stockman's cash-in-advance constraints. When the constraint applies to consumption and capital purchases, monetary growth lowers steady state consumption and capital. When the constraint applies only to consumption purchases, monetary growth is superneutral., Also available for download from: http://ideas.repec.org/a/ebl/ecbull/v5y2004i4p1-8.html
    A practical servomotor project: combining the Web with simulation tools to solidify concepts in undergraduate control education
    A practical servomotor project: combining the Web with simulation tools to solidify concepts in undergraduate control education
    Current technology enables the lecturer to use computer tools to enhance the conceptualisation of lecture material. This can be especially useful in an engineering curriculum, as the course material can be rendered less abstract through visual illustration of difficult mathematical concepts. In this paper, we present an example of a multimedia enhanced course in linear control theory, taught by authors at Ryerson Polytechnic University (Toronto, Canada). In our implementation of the course, we combine software simulations of practical systems to illustrate control theory concepts with extensive online course notes to assist with comprehension. Followup analysis shows that the use of the WWW and computer tools to enhance the learning process leads to increased enthusiasm, comprehension, and information retention. A review of the process required to create the technology enabled learning environment shows that initially there is a great deal of work involved. However, we conclude that the effort is justified by allowing a positive qualitative change in the way we educate engineering students, Proceedings of the 1998 American Control Conference. 21-26 Jun 1998: Volume 2: 1309-1313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACC.1998.703626