Research

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  • A Tale of Two Motives: Endogenous Time Preference, Cash-in-Advance Constraints and Monetary Policy
    A Tale of Two Motives: Endogenous Time Preference, Cash-in-Advance Constraints and Monetary Policy
    This paper demonstrates the effects of modeling an endogenous rate of time preference and two cash-in-advance constraints. If the constraint is levied on consumption and capital goods, time preference effects are neutral and cash-in-advance constraint effects invert the Tobin Effect. If the constraint applies solely to consumption goods, opposing motives are offsetting and monetary policy is super neutral., Kam, E. (2013). A Tale of Two Motives: Endogenous Time Preference, Cash-in-Advance Constraints and Monetary Policy. ME, 04(06), pp.427-430.
    A Tale of Two Systems: Success and Failure in a Single Information System Implementation
    A Tale of Two Systems: Success and Failure in a Single Information System Implementation
    This paper presents a case study of an information system implementation. The system, a computerized student record system, was introduced into a small university when the university opened. Unlike many other case studies of systems implementation, there was no existing system to replace, thus it was expected that there would be little resistance to the system. Successful implementation was anticipated, particularly as the systems designers were also the primary users. An evaluation of the system shows this was not the case. Two groups of users are identified, one pleased with the system, the other dissatisfied. The secondary users did not display their dissatisfaction with the system by resistance, however. They used the system frequently, but were denied the full access they required to do their jobs. Ostensibly due to technical limitations of the system, the primary users acted as gatekeepers. An examination of the culture and management structure of the university reveals strong political motivations for the primary users to exert power over the secondary users. Markus’s (1983) interpretation of interaction theory is used to discuss the political implications of the system design. It is concluded that senior management must be aware of the importance of information systems to their organizations, and understand the potential for designers to use these systems as sources of power. The case study is reconstructed from the author’s experiences as a staff member at the university during the system implementation, initially as a primary user of the system (but not an active member of the system design team), and later as a secondary user. The case is evaluated from the perspective of both user groups, using a framework derived from the literature on information systems failure and successful systems implementation., Middleton, Catherine. (1995). A Tale of Two Systems: Success and Failure in a Single Information System Implementation. (Working Paper 20-97). North York, ON: OBIR/Schulich School of Business.
    A Trade Policy Perspective On Import Quotas And The Substitution Effect
    A Trade Policy Perspective On Import Quotas And The Substitution Effect
    This paper focuses on the necessary conditions required in order to exploit the substitution effect which arises when there is a shift in demand induced by import quotas under imperfect competition. The protective policy succeeds if the substitution effect shifts in favor of goods produced by the domestic industry and this shift offsets foreign firms quota rents and the decrease in consumer welfare. While extant literature tends to focus on welfare loss associated with import quotas, in this paper social welfare analytics are produced and a trade policy decision rule for net welfare gain is obtained.
    A biomechanical assessment of modular and monoblock revision hip implants using FE analysis and strain gage measurements
    A biomechanical assessment of modular and monoblock revision hip implants using FE analysis and strain gage measurements
    Background The bone loss associated with revision surgery or pathology has been the impetus for developing modular revision total hip prostheses. Few studies have assessed these modular implants quantitatively from a mechanical standpoint.Methods Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models were developed to mimic a hip implant alone (Construct A) and a hip implant-femur configuration (Construct B). Bonded contact was assumed for all interfaces to simulate long-term bony ongrowth and stability. The hip implants modeled were a Modular stem having two interlocking parts (Zimmer Modular Revision Hip System, Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA) and a Monoblock stem made from a single piece of material (Stryker Restoration HA Hip System, Stryker, Mahwah, NJ, USA). Axial loads of 700 and 2000 N were applied to Construct A and 2000 N to Construct B models. Stiffness, strain, and stress were computed. Mechanical tests using axial loads were used for Construct A to validate the FE model. Strain gages were placed along the medial and lateral side of the hip implants at 8 locations to measure axial strain distribution.Results There was approximately a 3% average difference between FE and experimental strains for Construct A at all locations for the Modular implant and in the proximal region for the Monoblock implant. FE results for Construct B showed that both implants carried the majority (Modular, 76%; Monoblock, 66%) of the 2000 N load relative to the femur. FE analysis and experiments demonstrated that the Modular implant was 3 to 4.5 times mechanically stiffer than the Monoblock due primarily to geometric differences.Conclusions This study provides mechanical characteristics of revision hip implants at sub-clinical axial loads as an initial predictor of potential failure., Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2010, 5:34. doi:10.1186/1749-799X-5-34
    A changing landscape in collection development
    A changing landscape in collection development
    Ryerson University Library has been exploring different just-in-time acquisition models that provide us with cost-effective ways to purchase monograph titles with guaranteed usage. Based on our experience with Ebrary on the PDA (Patron Driven Acquisitions) Pilot, and with YBP on the DDA (Demand Driven Acquisitions) project, this discussion will focus on the theory behind our approach, the technicalities of implementation, and implications for future collection development strategies.
    A mixed methods study of the work patterns of full-time nurse practitioners in Canadian nursing homes
    A mixed methods study of the work patterns of full-time nurse practitioners in Canadian nursing homes
    The aim of this study was to explore the integration of the nurse practitioner role in Canadian nursing homes to enable its full potential to be realised for resident and family care. The objective was to determine nurse practitioners' patterns of work activities. Nurse practitioners were introduced in Canadian nursing homes a decade ago on a pilot basis. In recent years, government and nursing home sector interest in the role has grown along with the need for data to inform planning efforts. The study used a sequential mixed methods design using a national survey followed by case studies. A national survey of nurse practitioners included demographic items and the EverCare Nurse Practitioner Role and Activity Scale. Following the survey, case studies were conducted in four nursing homes. Data were collected using individual and focus group interviews, document reviews and field notes. Twenty-three of a target population of 26 nurse practitioners responded to the survey, two-thirds of whom provided services in nursing homes with one site and the remainder in nursing homes with as many as four sites. On average, nurse practitioners performed activities in communicator, clinician, care manager/coordinator and coach/educator subscales at least three to four times per week and activities in the collaborator subscale once a week. Of the 43 activities, nurse practitioners performed daily, most were in the clinician and communicator subscales. Case study interviews involved 150 participants. Findings complemented those of the survey and identified additional leadership activities. Nurse practitioners undertake a range of primary health care and advanced practice activities which they adapt to meet the unique needs of nursing homes. Knowledge of work patterns enables nursing homes to implement the full range of nurse practitioner roles and activities to enhance resident and family care., Martin‐Misener, R., Donald, F., Wickson‐Griffiths, A., Akhtar‐Danesh, N., Ploeg, J., Brazil, K., . . . Taniguchi, A. (2015). A mixed methods study of the work patterns of full‐time nurse practitioners in nursing homes. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(9-10), 1327-1337. doi:10.1111/jocn.12741
    A multi-dasymetric mapping approach for tourism
    A multi-dasymetric mapping approach for tourism
    The challenge of measuring at municipal level tourism density has been a daunting task for both statisticians and geographers. The reason of this is enforced by the fact that administrative areas, such as municipalities, tend to be large spatial administrative units, sharing a large demographic asymmetry of tourist demand within the municipality. The rationale is that geographic characteristics such as coastal line, climate and vegetation, play a crucial role in tourist offer, leaning towards the conclusion that traditional census at administrative level are simply not enough to interpret the true distribution of tourism data. A more quantifiable method is necessary to assess the distribution of socio-economic data. This is developed by means of a dasymetric approach adding on the advantages of multi-temporal comparison. This paper adopts a dasymetric approach for defining tourism density per land use types using the CORINE Land Cover dataset. A density map for tourism is calculated, creating a modified areal weighting (MAW) approach to assess the distribution of tourism density per administrative municipality. This distribution is then assessed as a bidirectional layer on the land use datasets for two temporal stamps: 2000 and 2006, which leads to (i) a consistent map on a more accurate distribution of tourism in Algarve, (ii) the calculation of tourism density surfaces, and (iii) a multi-locational and temporal assessment through density cross-tabulation. Finally a geovisual interpretation of locational analysis of tourism change in Algarve for the last decade is created. This integrative spatial methodology offers unique characteristics for more accurate decision making at regional level, bringing an integrative methodology to the forefront of linking tourism with the spatio-temporal clusters formed in rapidly changing economic regions.
    A note on cash-in-advance constraints in continuous time
    A note on cash-in-advance constraints in continuous time
    This paper demonstrates a robust proof of the continuous-time transformations of Stockman's cash-in-advance constraints. When the constraint applies to consumption and capital purchases, monetary growth lowers steady state consumption and capital. When the constraint applies only to consumption purchases, monetary growth is superneutral., Also available for download from: http://ideas.repec.org/a/ebl/ecbull/v5y2004i4p1-8.html
    A practical servomotor project: combining the Web with simulation tools to solidify concepts in undergraduate control education
    A practical servomotor project: combining the Web with simulation tools to solidify concepts in undergraduate control education
    Current technology enables the lecturer to use computer tools to enhance the conceptualisation of lecture material. This can be especially useful in an engineering curriculum, as the course material can be rendered less abstract through visual illustration of difficult mathematical concepts. In this paper, we present an example of a multimedia enhanced course in linear control theory, taught by authors at Ryerson Polytechnic University (Toronto, Canada). In our implementation of the course, we combine software simulations of practical systems to illustrate control theory concepts with extensive online course notes to assist with comprehension. Followup analysis shows that the use of the WWW and computer tools to enhance the learning process leads to increased enthusiasm, comprehension, and information retention. A review of the process required to create the technology enabled learning environment shows that initially there is a great deal of work involved. However, we conclude that the effort is justified by allowing a positive qualitative change in the way we educate engineering students, Proceedings of the 1998 American Control Conference. 21-26 Jun 1998: Volume 2: 1309-1313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACC.1998.703626
    A randomized controlled dismantling trial of post-workshop consultation strategies to increase effectiveness and fidelity to an evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder
    A randomized controlled dismantling trial of post-workshop consultation strategies to increase effectiveness and fidelity to an evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder
    Background: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health condition with substantial costs to individuals and society. Among military veterans, the lifetime prevalence of PTSD has been estimated to be as high as 20%. Numerous research studies have demonstrated that short-term cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies, such as Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), lead to substantial and sustained improvements in PTSD symptoms. Despite known benefits, only a minority of clinicians provide these therapies. Transferring this research knowledge into clinical settings remains one of the largest hurdles to improving the health of veterans with PTSD. Attending a workshop alone is insufficient to promote adequate knowledge transfer and sustained skill; however, relatively little research has been conducted to identify effective post-training support strategies. Methods: The current study investigates whether clinicians receiving post-workshop support (six-month duration) will deliver CPT with greater fidelity (i.e., psychotherapy adherence and competence) and have improved patient outcomes compared with clinicians receiving no formal post-workshop support. The study conditions are: technology-enhanced group tele-consultation; standard group tele-consultation; and fidelity assessment with no consultation. The primary outcome is independent assessment (via audio-recordings) of the clinicians’ adherence and competence in delivering CPT. The secondary outcome is observed changes in patient symptoms during and following treatment as a function of clinician fidelity. Post-consultation interviews with clinicians will help identify facilitators and barriers to psychotherapy skill acquisition. The study results will inform how best to implement and transfer evidence-based psychotherapy (e.g., CPT) to clinical settings to attain comparable outcomes to those observed in research settings. Discussion: Findings will deepen our understanding of how much and what type of support is needed following a workshop to help clinicians become proficient in delivering a new protocol. Several influences on clinician learning and patient outcomes will be discussed. An evidence-based model of clinical consultation will be developed, with the ultimate goal of informing policy and influencing best practice in clinical consultation. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01861769, Wiltsey Stirman, S., Shields, N., Deloriea, J., Landy, M. S. H., Belus, J. M., Maslej, M. M., & Monson, C. M. (2013). A randomized controlled dismantling trial of post-workshop consultation strategies to increase effectiveness and fidelity to an evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Implementation Science : IS, 8, 82.
    A realist review of brief interventions for alcohol misuse delivered in emergency departments
    A realist review of brief interventions for alcohol misuse delivered in emergency departments
    Background: Brief interventions (BIs) involve screening for alcohol misuse and providing feedback to patients about their use, with the aim of reducing alcohol consumption and related consequences. BIs have been implemented in various healthcare settings, including emergency departments (ED), where they have been found to contribute mixed results in their ability to address alcohol misuse among adults. Mechanisms through which BIs work and contextual factors impacting BI effectiveness are not clear. The purpose of this review was to understand how, for whom, and under what circumstances BIs work for adults misusing alcohol and who have been admitted to an ED. A realist review was chosen to answer these questions as realist reviews create context-mechanism-outcome configurations, leading to the development of comprehensive and detailed theories; in this case explaining how and for whom BIs work. Methods: Databases including PsycINFO, Healthstar, CINAHL, Medline, and Nursing and Allied Health were searched for articles published until December 2013. The search strategy focused on studies examining BIs that targeted alcohol misuse among adults admitted into the ED. The search identified 145 relevant abstracts, of which 36 were included in the review. The literature was synthesized qualitatively (immersion/crystallization). Results: Four mechanisms were found within reviewed studies, including engagement in/retention of BI materials, resolving ambivalence, increased awareness/insight into consequences of drinking, and increased self-efficacy/empowerment to use skills for change. The following contexts were found to impact mechanisms: emotional state, injury attributed to alcohol use, severity of alcohol use, and baseline stage of change. Conclusions: This realist review provides advances in theories regarding which mechanisms to target during a BI and which contexts create the most favorable conditions for these mechanisms to occur, ultimately leading to optimal BI outcomes. These results can inform future clinical decision-making when delivering BIs in ED settings. Future research should conduct quantitative examination to confirm these findings. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42013006549, Davey, C. J., Landy, M. S. H., Pecora, A., Quintero, D., & McShane, K. E. (2015). A realist review of brief interventions for alcohol misuse delivered in emergency departments. Systematic Reviews, 4(1), 45.
    A realistic review of family-based interventions for children of substance abusing parents.
    A realistic review of family-based interventions for children of substance abusing parents.
    Background Millions of children across North America and Europe live in families with alcohol or drug abusing parents. These children are at risk for a number of negative social, emotional and developmental outcomes, including an increased likelihood of developing a substance use disorder later in life. Family-based intervention programs for children with substance abusing parents can yield positive outcomes. This study is a realist review of evaluations of family-based interventions aimed at improving psychosocial outcomes for children of substance abusing parents (COSAPs). The primary objectives were to uncover patterns of contextual factors and mechanisms that generate program outcomes, and advance program theory in this field. Methods Realist review methodology was chosen as the most appropriate method of systematic review because it is a theory-driven approach that seeks to explore mechanisms underlying program effectiveness (or lack thereof). A systematic and comprehensive search of academic and grey literature uncovered 32 documents spanning 7 different intervention programs. Data was extracted from the included documents using abstraction templates designed to code for contexts, mechanisms and outcomes of each program. Two candidate program theories of family addiction were used to guide data analysis: the family disease model and the family prevention model. Data analysis was undertaken by a research team using an iterative process of comparison and checking with original documents to determine patterns within the data. Results Programs originating in both the family disease model and the family prevention model were uncovered, along with hybrid programs that successfully included components from each candidate program theory. Four demi-regularities were found to account for the effectiveness of programs included in this review: (1) opportunities for positive parent-child interactions, (2) supportive peer-to-peer relationships, (3) the power of knowledge, and (4) engaging hard to reach families using strategies that are responsive to socio-economic needs and matching services to client lived experience. Conclusions This review yielded new findings that had not otherwise been explored in COSAP program research and are discussed in order to help expand program theory. Implications for practice and evaluation are further discussed., Usher, A. M., McShane, K. E., & Dwyer, C. (2015). A realist review of family-based interventions for children of substance abusing parents. Systemic Reviews, 4, 177. doi:10.1186/s13643-015-0158-4