Research

  • 15248
  • 0
  • Acoustic Intervention in a Cultural Heritage: The Chapel of the Royal Palace in Caserta, Italy
    Acoustic Intervention in a Cultural Heritage: The Chapel of the Royal Palace in Caserta, Italy
    The modern use of ancient heritage sites can be, to say the least, challenging from an acoustical perspective. In fact, modern needs may require acoustical interventions in contrast with the preservation issues of the cultural heritage. This paper deals with this topic in an UNESCO designated world heritage site, the Palatine Chapel of the Royal Palace in Caserta, Italy. Since this chapel is currently being used for meetings and music chamber concerts, the acoustical characteristics of the chapel, originally used for religious purposes, are investigated. Field measurements were undertaken to evaluate the acoustical performance of the empty chapel. The measurements were then used to calibrate and validate a computer simulation model. Different acoustical treatments are then considered and simulations are used to determine the related acoustical improvements. Finally, the benefits of different acoustical treatments which are respectful of the aesthetic and historical value of this cultural heritage are discussed., Berardi, U., Iannace, G., & Ianniello, C. (2015;2016;). Acoustic intervention in a cultural heritage: The chapel of the royal palace in caserta, italy. Buildings, 6(1), 1. doi:10.3390/buildings6010001, (This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers on Building and Architectural Acoustics from ICSV22)
    Acoustics of a Music Venue/Bar—A Case Study
    Acoustics of a Music Venue/Bar—A Case Study
    A vacant unit, once used by a Portuguese Deli, was converted to a bar/music room in Toronto. The unit was divided into two spaces along its north-south axis. The western portion was designed as a music room that would provide a performance space from a solo artist to a Jazz combo to a small rock band. The eastern part was designed as a regular bar/dining area. The plan also called for a microbrewery unit at the back of the unit. The bar music can be loud, while the music room can be pianissimo to forte depending on the type of performance. The acoustical design aspects are critical for the music room. In addition, the acoustical separation between the two spaces is equally important. The music room/bar is currently in use. The design results are compared to actual field measurements. The results showed that the music venue performed satisfactorily. The acoustical separation between the music venue and the bar/restaurant was better than expected other than an installation deficiency of the south side sound lock doors. The background sound along the northern portion was NC-35 or less. However, the southern portion’s background sound exceeded NC-35 due to the hissing of the return air grille. The acoustical design and the performance results of the music venue-bar/restaurant are presented in this paper., Ramakrishnan, R., & Dumoulin, R. (2016). Acoustics of a music venue/bar—A case study. Buildings, 6(1), 11. doi:10.3390/buildings6010011, (This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers on Building and Architectural Acoustics from ICSV22)
    Action Research in OHS - Shifting from Hypothesis Testing to Experiential Learning?
    Action Research in OHS - Shifting from Hypothesis Testing to Experiential Learning?
    For more details see the case study example: Neumann, W.P., Ekman, M. and Winkel, J., 2009. Integrating ergonomics into system development - The Volvo Powertrain Case. Applied Ergonomics, 40(3): 527-537. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2008.09.010
    Active Collection of Land Cover Sample Data from Geo-Tagged Web Texts
    Active Collection of Land Cover Sample Data from Geo-Tagged Web Texts
    Sample data plays an important role in land cover (LC) map validation. Traditionally, they are collected through field survey or image interpretation, either of which is costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming. In recent years, massive geo-tagged texts are emerging on the web and they contain valuable information for LC map validation. However, this kind of special textual data has seldom been analyzed and used for supporting LC map validation. This paper examines the potential of geo-tagged web texts as a new cost-free sample data source to assist LC map validation and proposes an active data collection approach. The proposed approach uses a customized deep web crawler to search for geo-tagged web texts based on land cover-related keywords and string-based rules matching. A data transformation based on buffer analysis is then performed to convert the collected web texts into LC sample data. Using three provinces and three municipalities directly under the Central Government in China as study areas, geo-tagged web texts were collected to validate artificial surface class of China’s 30-meter global land cover datasets (GlobeLand30-2010). A total of 6283 geo-tagged web texts were collected at a speed of 0.58 texts per second. The collected texts about built-up areas were transformed into sample data. User’s accuracy of 82.2% was achieved, which is close to that derived from formal expert validation. The preliminary results show that geo-tagged web texts are valuable ancillary data for LC map validation and the proposed approach can improve the efficiency of sample data collection., Hou, D., Chen, J., Wu, H., Li, S., Chen, F., & Zhang, W. (2015). Active collection of land cover sample data from geo-tagged web texts. Remote Sensing, 7(5), 5805-5827. doi:10.3390/rs70505805
    Adapting Engineering Design Tools to Include Human Factors
    Adapting Engineering Design Tools to Include Human Factors
    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS In a longitudinal collaboration with engineers and human factors specialists at an electronics manufacturer, five engineering design tools were adapted to include human factors. The tools, many with required human factors targets, were integrated at each stage of assembly design to increase the proactive application of human factors. This article describes the process of adapting the five tools within the collaborating organization. Findings suggest 12 key features of human factors tools, most importantly that they “fit” with engineering processes, language, and tools; directly address business goals and influence key metrics; and are quantifiable and can demonstrate change. To be effective in an engineering design environment, it is suggested that human factors specialists increase their understanding of their organization’s design process, learn which tools are commonly used in engineering, focus on important metrics for the business goals, and incorporate human factors into engineering-based tools and worksystem design practices in their organizations. TECHNICAL ABSTRACT Rationale: Design engineers use diverse tools in design, but few incorporate human factors, even though optimizing human performance can further improve operational performance. There is a need for practical tools to help engineers integrate human factors into production design processes. Purpose: This article demonstrates how five engineering design tools were adapted to include human factors and were integrated into design processes within the case study organization. It also provides features of an effective human factors tool and recommendations for practitioners. Method: A longitudinal collaboration with engineers and human factors specialists in a large electronics manufacturing organization allowed in vivo adaptation and testing of various tools in an action research methodology. Qualitative data were recorded from multiple sources, then transcribed and analyzed over a 3-year period. Results: The adapted tools integrated into each stage of the design process included the human factors process failure mode effects analysis, human factors design for assembly, human factors design for fixtures, workstation efficiency evaluator, and human factors kaizens. Each tool had a unique participatory development process; 12 features are recommended for effective human factors tools based on the findings herein. Most importantly, tools should “fit” with existing engineering processes, language, and tools; directly address business goals and influence key metrics; and be quantifiable and demonstrate change. Conclusions: Engineers and management responded positively to the five tools adapted for human factors because they were designed to help improve assembly design and achieve their business goals. Several of the human factors tools became required targets within the design process, ensuring that human factors considerations are built into all future design processes. Adapting engineering tools, rather than using human factors tools, required a shift for human factors specialists, who needed to expand their knowledge of engineering processes, tools, techniques, language, metrics, and goals., Judy Village, Michael Greig, S. Zolfaghari, F. Salustri & W. P. Neumann (2014) Adapting Engineering Design Tools to Include Human Factors, IIE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, 2:1, 1-14, DOI:10.1080/21577323.2014.905884
    Adapting the failure modes effect analysis (FMEA) for early detection of human factors concerns
    Adapting the failure modes effect analysis (FMEA) for early detection of human factors concerns
    As one of many initiatives underway in a collaborative action research project with a large manufacturer, this paper presents the development of a "human factors" failure modes effect analysis (HF-FMEA). FMEA is an engineering reliability tool that helps define, identify, prioritize and eliminate known or potential failures of a system, design or manufacturing assembly process, generally to optimize quality or systems safety for consumers. The goal of the HF-FMEA is to detect and minimize risk of injury for the operator who will assemble products, prior to design of an assembly line. Scoring procedures for "severity", "occurrence" and "detection" from a HF perspective are presented with examples. Embedding the HF-FMEA into software templates, and structuring a process for support and integration helps ensure its continued use. The process may be useful for other organizations with hand-intensive assemblies to optimize worker health together with assembly quality.
    Adaptive spatial filter based on similarity indices to preserve the neural information on EEG signals during on-line processing
    Adaptive spatial filter based on similarity indices to preserve the neural information on EEG signals during on-line processing
    This work presents a new on-line adaptive filter, which is based on a similarity analysis between standard electrode locations, in order to reduce artifacts and common interferences throughout electroencephalography (EEG) signals, but preserving the useful information. Standard deviation and Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) between target electrodes and its correspondent neighbor electrodes are analyzed on sliding windows to select those neighbors that are highly correlated. Afterwards, a model based on CCC is applied to provide higher values of weight to those correlated electrodes with lower similarity to the target electrode. The approach was applied to brain computer-interfaces (BCIs) based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) to recognize 40 targets of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), providing an accuracy (ACC) of 86.44 ± 2.81%. In addition, also using this approach, features of low frequency were selected in the pre-processing stage of another BCI to recognize gait planning. In this case, the recognition was significantly (p<0.01) improved for most of the subjects (ACC≥74.79%) , when compared with other BCIs based on Common Spatial Pattern, Filter Bank-Common Spatial Pattern, and Riemannian Geometry. Keywords: artifact reduction; brain-computer interface; EEG; EOG; Laplacian; spatial filter; feature selection; gait planning; SSVEP, Delisle-Rodriguez, D., Villa-Parra, A., Bastos-Filho, T., López-Delis, A., Frizera-Neto, A., Krishnan, S., & Rocon, E. (2017). Adaptive Spatial Filter Based on Similarity Indices to Preserve the Neural Information on EEG Signals during On-Line Processing. Sensors, 17(12), 2725., (This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors and Systems 2017)
    Advancing biomimetic materials through ISO standards
    Advancing biomimetic materials through ISO standards
    This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities of developing standards for biomimetic materials, based on the authors experience with International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/Technical Committee 266 Biomimetics. With the expansion of global trade, international standards are increasingly called on to protect the interests of consumers, improve business productivity and facilitate trade. In the past, standards typically addressed form/fit/function specifications and were associated with mature industries. Recently some ISO standards are focusing on processes, quality and consistency, which can support advances in emerging fields. ISO has the potential to advance biomimetic materials and biomimetics in general by developing and promoting frameworks that reflect the evolving nature of biomimetics., Hoeller, N., & Salustri, F. A. (2016). Dvancing biomimetic materials through ISO standards. Bioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials, 5(4), 171-175.
    Age Discrimination and Early Retirement Policies: A Comparison of Labor Market Regulation in Canada and the United States
    Age Discrimination and Early Retirement Policies: A Comparison of Labor Market Regulation in Canada and the United States
    As public policy issues, mandatory retirement and age discrimination are approached differently in Canada and the United States. TIle legal frameworks, enforcement procedures, and judicial decisions are distinct in the two jurisdictions. The United States, unlike Canada, has specific legislation to protect the rights of older workers, and has a centralized enforcement system. The differences between the two countries are accounted for by the greater emphasis on individual rights in the United States and on communitariarnsm in Canada. The different policy choices of each society highlight the tensions inherent in North American labor markets. The United States seems to be in a better position to shift toward a labor-management policy which encourages older workers to remain in the workforce., Journal of Aging & Social Policy, Vol. 7(1) 1995
    Aging, Culture, and Memory for Socially Meaningful Item-Context Associations: An East-West Cross-Cultural Comparison Study
    Aging, Culture, and Memory for Socially Meaningful Item-Context Associations: An East-West Cross-Cultural Comparison Study
    Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older) and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older). All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age., Yang L, Li J, Spaniol J, Hasher L, Wilkinson AJ, Yu J, et al. (2013) Aging, Culture, and Memory for Socially Meaningful Item-Context Associations: An East-West Cross-Cultural Comparison Study. PLoS ONE 8(4): e60703.
    Airfoil Performance at Low Reynolds Numbers in the Presence of Periodic Disturbances
    Airfoil Performance at Low Reynolds Numbers in the Presence of Periodic Disturbances
    The boundary-layer separation and wake structure of a NACA 0025 airfoil and the effect of external excitations in presence of structural vibrations on airfoil performance were studied experimentally. Wind tunnel experiments were carried out for three Reynolds numbers and three angles of attack, involving hot-wire measurements and complementary surface flow visualization. The results establish that external acoustic excitation at a particular frequency and appropriate amplitude suppresses or reduces the separation region and decreases the airfoil wake, i.e., produces an increase of the lift and/or decrease of the drag. The acoustic excitation also alters characteristics of the vortical structures in the wake, decreasing the vortex length scale and coherency. Optimum excitation frequencies were found to correlate with the fundamental frequencies of the naturally amplified disturbances in the separated shear layer. The results suggest that acoustic waves play a dominant role in exciting the separated shear layer of the airfoil. Moreover, low-frequency structural vibrations are found to have a significant effect on airfoil performance, as they enhance the sound pressure levels within the test section., Journal of Fluids Engineering. May 2006, Vol. 128. DOI: 10.1115/1.2175165