Research

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  • An Examination of the difference in Performance of Self-Care Behaviours between White and Non-White Patients Following CABG Surgery: A Secondary Analysis
    An Examination of the difference in Performance of Self-Care Behaviours between White and Non-White Patients Following CABG Surgery: A Secondary Analysis
    BACKGROUND: The demographic profile of the patient receiving coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in Canada has changed significantly over the past 20 years from mainly white (i.e., English, Irish, Scottish) to non-white (i.e., Indian or Chinese). To support individuals who have recently undergone a CABG procedure, patient education is provided to guide performance of self-care behaviours in the home environment. The relevance of this education, when applied to the current CABG surgery population, is questionable, as it was designed and tested using a white, homogenous sample. Thus, the number and type of self-care behaviours performed by persons of Indian and Chinese origin has not been investigated. These individuals may have varying self-care needs that are not reflected in the current self-care patient education materials. PURPOSE: The intent of this study was to examine the difference in the type and number of self-care behaviours performed between white and non-white patients following CABG surgery. METHODS: This study is a sub-study of a descriptive, exploratory design that included a convenience sample. Ninety-nine patients were recruited, representing three cultural groups (White, Indian, and Chinese). Descriptive data were used to describe the sample and identify specific self-care behaviours performed in the home environment. FINDINGS: Results indicate statistically significant differences between white and non-white individuals related to use of incentive spirometer (p = 0.04), deep breathing and coughing exercises (p = 0.04), and activity modification (p < 0.05) at 1 week following hospital discharge. IMPLICATIONS: Future research and theoretical exploration are required to assist in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the differences that are noted between white and non-white groups., Fredericks, S., Lo, J., Ibrahim, S., & Leung, J. (2010). An examination of the difference in performance of self-care behaviours between white and non-white patients following CABG surgery: A secondary analysis. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 20, 4, 21-29.
    An Investigation of Backscatter Power Spectra from Cells, Cell Pellets and Microspheres
    An Investigation of Backscatter Power Spectra from Cells, Cell Pellets and Microspheres
    Online version of a conference paper originally published as: An Investigation of Backscatter Power Spectra from Cells, Cell Pellets and Microspheres, M.C. Kolios, L. Taggart, R..E. Baddour, F.S. Foster, J.W. Hunt, G.J. Czarnota and M.D. Sherar, In Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Publisher URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1293510
    An Investigation of GIS Overlay and PCA Techniques for Urban Environmental Quality Assessment: A Case Study in Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    An Investigation of GIS Overlay and PCA Techniques for Urban Environmental Quality Assessment: A Case Study in Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    The United Nations estimates that the global population is going to be double in the coming 40 years, which may cause a negative impact on the environment and human life. Such an impact may instigate increased water demand, overuse of power, anthropogenic noise, etc. Thus, modelling the Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ) becomes indispensable for a better city planning and an efficient urban sprawl control. This study aims to investigate the ability of using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques to model the UEQ with a case study in the city of Toronto via deriving different environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Remote sensing, GIS and census data were first obtained to derive environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Two techniques, GIS overlay and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were used to integrate all of these environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Socio-economic parameters including family income, higher education and land value were used as a reference to assess the outcomes derived from the two integration methods. The outcomes were assessed through evaluating the relationship between the extracted UEQ results and the reference layers. Preliminary findings showed that the GIS overlay represents a better precision and accuracy (71% and 65%), respectively, comparing to the PCA technique. The outcomes of the research can serve as a generic indicator to help the authority for better city planning with consideration of all possible social, environmental and urban requirements or constraints., Faisal, K., & Shaker, A. (2017). An Investigation of GIS Overlay and PCA Techniques for Urban Environmental Quality Assessment: A Case Study in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Sustainability, 9(3), 380., This article belongs to the Special Issue Maintaining Ecosystem Services to Support Urban Needs.
    An axiomatic theory of engineering design information
    An axiomatic theory of engineering design information
    Recent research in design theory has sought to formalize the engineering design process without particular concern for the paradigm used to model design information. The authors propose that no correct formalization of the design process can be achieved without first formalizing the semantics of the information used in the process. To this end, the authors present a new formal theory of design information. The theory, called the Hybrid Model, is an extended form of axiomatic set theory, and relies on it for consistency and logical rigor. The theory is stated as a collection of axioms, using a standard logic notation. Design entities are modeled by formal units called objects. Generalized functions and relations are used to formalize important ordering schemes and abstraction mechanisms relevant to design, including classification by structure and by function, aggregation, specialization and generalization. The hybrid model is meant not only to aid in the study of the design process itself, but also to improve communications between designers, assist standardization of design specifications, and develop new, powerful software tools to aid the designer in his work., Unfortunately, for some reason the paper is rendered in backwards page order. Sorry.
    An ergonomics action research demonstration: integrating human factors into assembly design processes
    An ergonomics action research demonstration: integrating human factors into assembly design processes
    In action research (AR), the researcher participates ‘in’ the actions in an organisation, while simultaneously reflecting ‘on’ the actions to promote learning for both the organisation and the researchers. This paper demonstrates a longitudinal AR collaboration with an electronics manufacturing firm where the goal was to improve the organisation’s ability to integrate human factors (HF) proactively into their design processes. During the three-year collaboration, all meetings, workshops, interviews and reflections were digitally recorded and qualitatively analysed to inform new ‘actions’. By the end of the collaboration, HF tools with targets and sign-off by the HF specialist were integrated into several stages of the design process, and engineers were held accountable for meeting the HF targets. We conclude that the AR approach combined with targeting multiple initiatives at different stages of the design process helped the organisation find ways to integrate HF into their processes in a sustainable way. Practitioner Summary: Researchers acted as a catalyst to help integrate HF into the engineering design process in a sustainable way. This paper demonstrates how an AR approach can help achieve HF integration, the benefits of using a reflective stance and one method for reporting an AR study., J. Village, M. Greig, F. Salustri, S. Zolfaghari & W.P. Neumann (2014) An ergonomics action research demonstration: integrating human factors into assembly design processes, Ergonomics, 57:10, 1574-1589, DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2014.938128 Recipient of the Liberty Mutual Award for 2015. (http://www.ergonomics.org.uk/awards/liberty-mutual-award/)
    An examination of current patient education interventions delivered to culturally diverse patients following CABG surgery.
    An examination of current patient education interventions delivered to culturally diverse patients following CABG surgery.
    The design of current educational initiatives for heart surgery patients is based on feedback from individuals of Western European origin. The relevance of these initiatives is unknown when provided to individuals from non-Western European cultures. This study examined the cultural relevance of heart surgery patient educational initiatives delivered to individuals of diverse backgrounds. It used a non-experimental descriptive design involving 252 participants. Cultural relevance was assessed through self-care behaviours performed as recommended in the educational initiative. The participants of non-Western European origin were found to engage in more work-related activities and fewer self-care behaviours than their Western European counterparts in the first week following hospital discharge, indicating lack of adherence to educational recommendations. The study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that current self-care educational initiatives may not be culturally relevant. Continued evaluation to determine reasons why specific cultural groups engage in specific types of behaviour is needed., Fredericks, S., Sidani, S., Vahabi, M., Micevski, V. (2012). An examination of current patient education interventions delivered to culturally diverse patients following CABG surgery. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research (Focus Issue: Acute and Critical Care), 44, 1, 76-9
    An examination of the post-discharge recovery experience of patients who have had heart surgery.
    An examination of the post-discharge recovery experience of patients who have had heart surgery.
    Background: Although resources to promote recovery following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) and Valve Replacement (VR) surgery are provided, over a quarter of all patients are being readmitted to hospitals with post-operative complications experienced during the first 3 months of recovery. A possible reason for the high rate of readmission following heart surgery is the quality of patient engagement in the performance of self-care behaviours. In particular, patients who have had CABG and/or VR may not be fully engaged in the required self-care behaviours during their first 3 months of recovery. Research Question: This review was conducted to address the clinically relevant question: What is the post-operative recovery experience of the individual who has had CABG and/or VR?. Methods: A review of studies that examined the post-operative recovery experience of patients who had CABG and/or VR was conducted. Results: Findings suggest the type of post-operative complication identified during the first 3 months of recovery following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) and Valve Replacement (VR) was either cognitive or cardiac in nature. As well, the number of self-care behaviours patients engage in during their hospital discharge was slightly less than the number of behaviours patients performed while in hospital. Conclusion and Relevance to Clinical Practice: As close to half of the sample reported some form of cognitive impairment within the first 3 months following surgery, it is possible that this impairment may have influenced the type and number of self-care behaviours performed. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the best time to educate patients during their recovery following hospital discharge., Fredericks, S. & DaSilva, M. (2010). An examination of the post-discharge recovery experience of patients who have had heart surgery. Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness: An International Journal, 2, 4, pp. 281-291.
    An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation modeling
    An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation modeling
    Title An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation models. Background Socioeconomic indicators have been inversely associated with overweight and obesity, with stronger associations observed among women. The objective of the present secondary analysis was to examine the relationships among socioeconomic measures and adiposity for men and women participating in the Ontario Food Survey (OFS), and to explore lifestyle factors as potential mediators of these associations. Methods The cross-sectional 1997/98 OFS collected anthropometric measurements, a food frequency questionnaire, data on socio-demographics (age, sex, income, and education) and physical activity from 620 women and 467 men, ages 18 to 75. Based on the 2003 Health Canada guidelines, waist circumference and BMI values were used to derive least risk, increased risk, and high risk adiposity groups. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine increased risk and high risk adiposity in relation to education and income, with leisure time physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and smoking status included as potential mediators of these associations. Results The probability of high risk adiposity was directly associated with education (β-0.19, p < 0.05) and income (β-0.22, p < 0.05) for women, but not for men. Fruit and vegetable intake was a marginally significant mediator of the relationship between education and high risk adiposity for women. Increased risk adiposity was not associated with income or education for men or women. Conclusion The socioeconomic context of adiposity continues to differ greatly between men and women. For women only in the OFS, fruit and vegetable intake contributed to the inverse association between education and high risk adiposity; however, additional explanatory factors are yet to be determined., Ward, H., Tarasuk, V., Mendelson, R., & McKeown-Eyssen, G. (2007). An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the ontario food survey through structural equation modeling. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 4(1), 8-8. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-4-8 Export As... PrintEmail
    An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation modeling
    An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation modeling
    Title: An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation models.Background: Socioeconomic indicators have been inversely associated with overweight and obesity, with stronger associations observed among women. The objective of the present secondary analysis was to examine the relationships among socioeconomic measures and adiposity for men and women participating in the Ontario Food Survey (OFS), and to explore lifestyle factors as potential mediators of these associations.Methods: The cross-sectional 1997/98 OFS collected anthropometric measurements, a food frequency questionnaire, data on socio-demographics (age, sex, income, and education) and physical activity from 620 women and 467 men, ages 18 to 75. Based on the 2003 Health Canada guidelines, waist circumference and BMI values were used to derive least risk, increased risk, and high risk adiposity groups. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine increased risk and high risk adiposity in relation to education and income, with leisure time physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and smoking status included as potential mediators of these associations.Results: The probability of high risk adiposity was directly associated with education (β-0.19, p < 0.05) and income (β-0.22, p < 0.05) for women, but not for men. Fruit and vegetable intake was a marginally significant mediator of the relationship between education and high risk adiposity for women. Increased risk adiposity was not associated with income or education for men or women. Conclusion: The socioeconomic context of adiposity continues to differ greatly between men and women. For women only in the OFS, fruit and vegetable intake contributed to the inverse association between education and high risk adiposity; however, additional explanatory factors are yet to be determined., International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2007, 4:8. doi:10.1186/1479- 5868-4-8
    An exploration of user-generated wireless broadband infrastructures in digital cities
    An exploration of user-generated wireless broadband infrastructures in digital cities
    This paper examines the broadband connectivity options available in digital cities. It offers an overview of services provided by commercial operators, the public sector and by citizens themselves, arguing that shortcomings in existing fixed broadband and commercial mobile broadband services provide an opportunity for citizens to share their own wireless broadband connections. It explores Wi-Fi hotspot provider FON's approach to extending mobile broadband infrastructure by enabling shared connections within communities. The paper outlines some reasons why this specific user-generated approach to infrastructure provision has been unable to deliver highly robust broadband infrastructure, and discusses ways in which users and the public sector can be involved in developing new mobile infrastructures that will meet citizens' needs., Middleton, C. A., & Bryne, A. An Exploration of User-Generated Wireless Broadband Infrastructures in Digital Cities. Telematics & Infomatics, doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2010.08.003.
    An interval-size illusion: The influence of timbre on the perceived size of melodic intervals
    An interval-size illusion: The influence of timbre on the perceived size of melodic intervals
    In four experiments, we investigated the influence of timbre on perceived interval size. In Experiment 1, musically untrained participants heard two successive tones and rated the pitch distance between them. Tones were separated by six or seven semitones and varied in timbre. Pitch changes were accompanied by a congruent timbre change (e.g., ascending interval involving a shift from a dull to a bright timbre), an incongruent timbre change (e.g., ascending interval involving a shift from a bright to a dull timbre), or no timbre change. Ratings of interval size were strongly influenced by timbre. The six-semitone interval with a congruent timbre change was perceived to be larger than the seven-semitone interval with an incongruent timbre change (interval illusion). Experiment 2 revealed similar effects for musically trained participants. In Experiment 3, participants compared the size of two intervals presented one after the other. Effects of timbre were again observed, including evidence of an interval illusion. Experiment 4 confirmed that timbre manipulations did not distort the perceived pitch of tones. Changes in timbre can expand or contract the perceived size of intervals without distorting individual pitches. We discuss processes underlying interval size perception and their relation to pitch perception mechanisms.
    Analysis of Ultrasound Backscatter from Ensembles of Cells and Isolated Nuclei
    Analysis of Ultrasound Backscatter from Ensembles of Cells and Isolated Nuclei
    We have previously shown that the intensity of the ultrasound backscatter from cells ensembles undergoing apoptosis increases and shifts in their normalized power spectra are detected when compared to the backscatter from non-apoptotic cells. The etiology of these changes is unknown. During apoptosis many cellular changes occur, perhaps the most striking being the condensation and subsequent fragmentation of the cell nucleus. In this set of experiments have exposed either whole Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cells or nuclei isolated from AML cells to different ionic strengths known to induce specific and reproducible cellular and nuclear changes. Ultrasound images and rf backscatter data were collected and analyzed at the different ionic strengths, and electron micrographs were made. Exposing cells to higher ionic strengths increased the ultrasound backscatter by 12 dB, but exposing the nuclei to the same experimental conditions decreased the backscatter by 23 dB. Furthermore, while the spectral slopes of the rf backscatter were similar for cells and nuclei at physiological saline, at increased concentrations the slope increased for the nuclei but decreased for the cells. The paper discusses the implications and significance of the findings. In conclusion, disruptions in cell and nuclear structure induced by exposure to strong ionic environments can greatly alter the ultrasound backscatter signal characteristics, Online version of a conference paper originally published as: Analysis of Ultrasound Backscatter from Ensembles of Cells and Isolated Nuclei, M.C. Kolios, G.J. Czarnota, M. Hussain, F. S. Foster, J.W. Hunt and M.D. Sherar (2001), In Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Publisher URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?isnumber=21384&arnumber=991948&count=205&index=92