Research

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  • Who is Responsible for Human Factors in Engineering Design? The Case of Volvo Powertrain
    Who is Responsible for Human Factors in Engineering Design? The Case of Volvo Powertrain
    A case study in Volvo Powertrain is conducted to examine the distribution of responsibility for human factors in the companies’ engineering design process. Design decisions with human factors impact, and hence system performance implications, are identified in the design of both the product and the production system in a chain of decisions, spread across multiple stakeholder groups. Thus the organisational structure of the engineering design process appears to influence the ability to handle human factors appropriately at each stage of design. Responsibility (although perhaps not accountability) appears to be distributed throughout the engineering design process. Thus human factors aspects require careful coordination throughout engineering design., For a more in-depth look on this subject, please see: Neumann, W.P., Ekman, M. and Winkel, J., 2009. Integrating ergonomics into system development - The Volvo Powertrain Case. Applied Ergonomics, 40(3): 527-537. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2008.09.010 Neumann, W.P. and Winkel, J., 2005. Organisational design and the (dis)integration of human factors in production system development. In: B. Chase (Editor), Human aspects of advanced manufacturing: agility and hybrid automation, San Diego, USA. http://digitalcommons.ryerson.ca/ie/13/ Neumann, W.P., 2004. Production Ergonomics: Identifying and managing risk in the design of high performance work systems, Lund Technical University, Lund, 159 p. ISBN 91-628-6287-1 http://digitalcommons.ryerson.ca/ie/5/ Neumann, W.P., Wells, R.P., Norman, R.W., Jeans, B., Dubblestyne, D., Harvey, H., Peter, O. (1999) Roles and Relationships for Making Ergonomics Change: Results of a 2-Day Focus Session with Industry Personnel. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association of Canadian Ergonomists, Hull, Canada http://digitalcommons.ryerson.ca/ie/3/
    Why the lie:  probing the explanation for journalistic cheating
    Why the lie: probing the explanation for journalistic cheating
    This Review Essay examines four books that offer a variety of explanations fabrication and plagiarism within journalism. They include explanations offered by the two most famous recent perpetrators of fabrication (Jayson Blair and Stephen Glass), as well as an analysis of the recent scandals at the New York Times and of cheating in the wider society. Among the explanations probed are workplace pressure, the "star" system in journalism, and the culture of trust and lack of policing within news organizations. Simpler explanations are rejected, including pure ambition, lack of ability, dysfunctional management, and affirmative action., Shapiro, I. (2006). Why They Lie: Probing the Explanations for Journalistic Cheating. Canadian Journal Of Communication, 31(1). Retrieved from http://www.cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/1595
    Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages
    Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages
    Background Antimicrobial resistance is increasing among clinical Campylobacter cases and is common among isolates from other sources, specifically retail poultry - a major source of human infection. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from a UK-wide survey of Campylobacter in retail poultry in 2001 and 2004–5 was investigated. The occurrence of phenotypes resistant to tetracycline, quinolones (ciprofloxacin and naladixic acid), erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides was quantified. This was compared with a phylogeny for these isolates based upon Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance acquisition. Results Antimicrobial resistance was present in all lineage clusters, but statistical testing showed a non-random distribution. Erythromycin resistance was associated with Campylobacter coli. For all antimicrobials tested, resistant isolates were distributed among relatively distant lineages indicative of widespread acquisition. There was also evidence of clustering of resistance phenotypes within lineages; indicative of local expansion of resistant strains. Conclusions These results are consistent with the widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among chicken associated Campylobacter isolates, either through mutation or horizontal gene transfer, and the expansion of these lineages as a proportion of the population. As Campylobacter are not known to multiply outside of the host and long-term carriage in humans is extremely infrequent in industrialized countries, the most likely location for the proliferation of resistant lineages is in farmed chickens., Wimalarathna, H. M. L., Richardson, J. F., Lawson, A. J., Elson, R., Meldrum, R., Little, C. L.. . Sheppard, S. K. (2013). Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages. BMC Microbiology, 13(1), 160-160. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-13-160
    Will Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Will Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    BackgroundThere is evidence to suggest that delivery of diabetes self-management support by diabetes educators in primary care may improve patient care processes and patient clinical outcomes; however, the evaluation of such a model in primary care is nonexistent in Canada. This article describes the design for the evaluation of the implementation of Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care settings in Canada. Methods/designThis study will use a non-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial stepped wedge design to evaluate the Mobile Diabetes Education Teams' intervention in improving patient clinical and care process outcomes. A total of 1,200 patient charts at participating primary care sites will be reviewed for data extraction. Eligible patients will be those aged ≥18, who have type 2 diabetes and a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of ≥8%. Clusters (that is, primary care sites) will be randomized to the intervention and control group using a block randomization procedure within practice size as the blocking factor. A stepped wedge design will be used to sequentially roll out the intervention so that all clusters eventually receive the intervention. The time at which each cluster begins the intervention is randomized to one of the four roll out periods (0, 6, 12, and 18 months). Clusters that are randomized into the intervention later will act as the control for those receiving the intervention earlier. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the proportion of patients who achieve the recommended HbA1c target of ≤7% between intervention and control groups. Qualitative work (in-depth interviews with primary care physicians, MDET educators and patients; and MDET educators’ field notes and debriefing sessions) will be undertaken to assess the implementation process and effectiveness of the MDET intervention. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553266 Keywords:Diabetes; Self-management education; Diabetes self-management support; Primary care; Cluster randomized controlled trial; Stepped wedge design; Inter-professional collaboration; Chronic disease models, Trials 2012, 13:165 doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-165 http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/13/1/165
    Will Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Will Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Background There is evidence to suggest that delivery of diabetes self-management support by diabetes educators in primary care may improve patient care processes and patient clinical outcomes; however, the evaluation of such a model in primary care is nonexistent in Canada. This article describes the design for the evaluation of the implementation of Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care settings in Canada. Methods/design This study will use a non-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial stepped wedge design to evaluate the Mobile Diabetes Education Teams' intervention in improving patient clinical and care process outcomes. A total of 1,200 patient charts at participating primary care sites will be reviewed for data extraction. Eligible patients will be those aged ≥18, who have type 2 diabetes and a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of ≥8%. Clusters (that is, primary care sites) will be randomized to the intervention and control group using a block randomization procedure within practice size as the blocking factor. A stepped wedge design will be used to sequentially roll out the intervention so that all clusters eventually receive the intervention. The time at which each cluster begins the intervention is randomized to one of the four roll out periods (0, 6, 12, and 18 months). Clusters that are randomized into the intervention later will act as the control for those receiving the intervention earlier. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the proportion of patients who achieve the recommended HbA1c target of ≤7% between intervention and control groups. Qualitative work (in-depth interviews with primary care physicians, MDET educators and patients; and MDET educators’ field notes and debriefing sessions) will be undertaken to assess the implementation process and effectiveness of the MDET intervention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553266, Gucciardi, E., Fortugno, M., Horodezny, S., Lou, W., Sidani, S., Espin, S., Shah, B. R. (2012). Will mobile diabetes education teams (MDETs) in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 13(1), 165-165. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-165
    William L. Rowe’s A Priori Argument for Atheism
    William L. Rowe’s A Priori Argument for Atheism
    William Rowe’s a posteriori arguments for the non-existence of God are well-known. Rather less attention has been given, however, to Rowe’s intriguing a priori argument for atheism. In this paper, I examine the three published responses to Rowe’s a priori argument (due to Bruce Langtry, William Morris, and Daniel and Frances Howard- Snyder, respectively). I conclude that none is decisive, but I show that Rowe’s argument nevertheless requires more defence than he provides., This paper appears in Faith and Philosophy 22 (2005): 211-234. The published version can be found online at : http://www.pdcnet.org/collection/faithphil_2005_0022_0002_0211_0234.pdf .
    Wind Power Deployment: The Role of Public Participation in the Decision-Making Process in Ontario, Canada
    Wind Power Deployment: The Role of Public Participation in the Decision-Making Process in Ontario, Canada
    A wider use of renewable energy is emerging as a viable solution to meet the increasing demand for global energy while contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, current literature on renewable energy, particularly on wind power, highlights the social barriers and public opposition to renewable energy investment. One solution to overcome the public opposition, which is recommended by scholars, is to deploy a collaborative approach. Relatively little research has specifically focused on the role of effective communication and the use of a knowledge-broker in collaborative decision-making. This study attempts to fill this gap through the proposition of a participatory framework that highlights the role of the knowledge-broker in a wind project decision-making process. In this paper, five illustrative wind projects in Ontario are used to highlight the current situation with public participation and to address how the proposed framework could have improved the process. Based on the recommended collaborative framework, perception must shift from the dominant view of the public as “a risk to be managed” towards “a resource that can be tapped”. The developers need to improve sharing what they know and foster co-learning around questions and concerns., Jami, A., & Walsh, P. (2016). Wind power deployment: The role of public participation in decision-making process in ontario, canada. Sustainability, 8(8), 713., (This article belongs to the Special Issue How Better Decision-Making Helps to Improve Sustainability)
    Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm
    Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm
    Optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network planning, design, deployment and operation often give rise to multi-objective optimization formulations where multiple desirable objectives compete with each other and the decision maker has to select one of the tradeoff solutions. These multiple objectives may or may not conflict with each other. Keeping in view the nature of the application, the sensing scenario and input/output of the problem, the type of optimization problem changes. To address different nature of optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network design, deployment, operation, planning and placement, there exist a plethora of optimization solution types. We review and analyze different desirable objectives to show whether they conflict with each other, support each other or they are design dependent. We also present a generic multi-objective optimization problem relating to wireless sensor network which consists of input variables, required output, objectives and constraints. A list of constraints is also presented to give an overview of different constraints which are considered while formulating the optimization problems in wireless sensor networks. Keeping in view the multi facet coverage of this article relating to multi-objective optimization, this will open up new avenues of research in the area of multi-objective optimization relating to wireless sensor networks., Iqbal, M., Naeem, M., Anpalagan, A., Ahmed, A., & Azam, M. (2015). Wireless sensor network optimization: Multi-objective paradigm. Sensors, 15(7), 17572-17620. doi:10.3390/s150717572, (This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
    Women in medicine: practice patterns and attitudes
    Women in medicine: practice patterns and attitudes
    Increasing numbers of women are entering medicine in Canada. In 1959 women accounted for 6% of the medical school graduates, but by 1989 they accounted for 44%. Although there has been little systematic investigation of the impact of this increase on Canada's health care system, there are grounds for believing that female physicians bring with them distinctive values and interests, which may be reflected in the way they conduct their professional practices. We used data from a recent national survey of 2398 Canadian physicians to examine differences between women and men in their practices and their attitudes toward health care issues. Significant differences were found in the organization and management of the practices. Women preferred group over solo practice and were overrepresented in community health centres, health service organizations and centres locaux de services communautaires in Quebec. One-third of the women, as compared with half of the men, were in specialties. Even after adjusting for differences in workloads the incomes of the women were significantly lower than those of the men. Only minor differences were observed in the assessment of the health care system and alternative modes of organizing health care services. We believe that the differences were due to the double workload of women as professionals and family caregivers and the powerful socialization effects of medical education. As women overcome their minority status in the medical profession, differences between the sexes may become more apparent. Thus, the extent and effects of the progressive increase in the number of women in Canadian medicine should be assessed on an ongoing basis., CAN MED ASSOC J 1990; 143 (3)
    Women in the Field: What Do You Know?
    Women in the Field: What Do You Know?
    Rauhala, Ann and April Lindgren. 2012. Women in the Field: What do youknow? Proceedings of the 2012 annual conference of the CanadianCommunication Association. Available via: <http://cca.kingsjournalism.com/?p=173>.
    Women, smartphones and the workplace: pragmatic realities and performative identities
    Women, smartphones and the workplace: pragmatic realities and performative identities
    This paper explores the ways that a sample of professional women use smartphones to manage their personal activities and work responsibilities. It reveals a number of specific, mindful practices used to convey and enable accessibility, professionalism and responsiveness to colleagues and clients, showing how smartphones are used to shape and maintain professional identities. At the same time, women also choose to set boundaries to ensure that the immediacy enabled by their smartphones does not encroach upon their personal relationships in undesirable or unpredictable ways, and to allow them to choose when to engage with work while outside the office. The paper reveals the nuances of smartphone use in this group of women, demonstrating various approaches to managing a potentially disruptive communications device to professional and personal advantage, Crowe, R., & Middleton, C. (2012). WOMEN, SMARTPHONES AND THE WORKPLACE: Pragmatic realities and performative identities. Feminist Media Studies, 12(4), 560-569. doi:10.1080/14680777.2012.741872
    Working with Ebook Metadata
    Working with Ebook Metadata
    Presented at British Columbia Library Association annual conference, April 23, 2010, Penticton, BC.