Research

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  • Trade, growth, and convergence in a dynamic Heckscher-Ohlin model
    Trade, growth, and convergence in a dynamic Heckscher-Ohlin model
    In models in which convergence in income levels across closed countries is driven by faster accumulation of a productive factor in the poorer countries, opening these countries to trade can stop convergence and even cause divergence. We make this point using a dynamic Heckscher-Ohlin model — a combination of a static two-good, two-factor Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and a two-sector growth model — with infinitely lived consumers where international borrowing and lending are not permitted. We obtain two main results: First, countries that differ only in their initial endowments of capital per worker may converge or diverge in income levels over time, depending on the elasticity of substitution between traded goods. Divergence can occur for parameter values that would imply convergence in a world of closed economies and vice versa. Second, factor price equalization in a given period does not imply factor price equalization in future periods., Also available for download here: http://ideas.repec.org/p/fip/fedmsr/378.html
    Trainees’ self-reported challenges in knowledge translation practice and research
    Trainees’ self-reported challenges in knowledge translation practice and research
    Knowledge translation (KT) refers to the process of moving knowledge into healthcare practice and policy. The practice of KT is about helping decision-makers become aware of knowledge and facilitating their use of it in their day-to-day work. The science of KT is about studying the determinants of knowledge use and investigating strategies to support the adoption, implementation, and sustained use of knowledge in healthcare practice and policy. An increasing number of trainees are developing careers in KT practice and/or KT research. Given the infancy of this field, there may be unique challenges that trainees face as they develop their careers in KT. This paper is one of two from a study about KT trainees’ perspectives on KT research and practice. The purpose of this paper was to identify challenges that KT trainees face in their KT practice or research, Urquhart, R., Cornelissen, E., Lal, S., Newman, K., Van Eerd, D., Powell, B., & Chan, V. (2014). Trainees’ self-reported challenges in knowledge translation practice and research. BMC Health Services Research, 14(Suppl 2), P129. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-S2-P129
    Transforming faculty development programs from face-to-face to blended/hybrid environments
    Transforming faculty development programs from face-to-face to blended/hybrid environments
    Faculty development programs are critical to the success of the learning and teaching process in higher education. With the rapid development of blended courses there is a need to transform the face-to-face faculty development programs to blended programs. The transformation requires instructors to examine new teaching methods and techniques, and obtain new skill set to ensure the success of the learning process and students’ engagement in the new environment. Blended teaching is not just about transferring part of the training course online, but involves creating online activities that engage learners and complement the face-to-face activities. The role of the instructors changes from lecturer to facilitator of learning, coach and collaborator. Through participation in blended learning environments, instructors could experiment the new teaching strategies in a collaborative and safe environment. This paper presents the process, benefits and challenges of transforming the Instructional Skills Workshop (ISW) for instructors from a three-day twenty four hours intensive format to four-week blended format. The Instructional Skills Workshop is peer-based training in which participants interact and present lessons in small groups to develop effective instructional skills through the use of constructive feedback strategies. Strategies associated with the re-design process which is based on the instructional design theories and principles will be presented. The paper presents data from formative and summative evaluations on communication, instructional skills and course design. The recommendations will address best practices that could be used to transform many faculty development programs from face-to-face to blended formats. Keywords: Hybrid, Online, Blended Teaching, Blended Learning, Faculty Development Programs, Instructional Skills., Hanna, D. (2014). Transforming Faculty Development Programs From Face-To-Face To Blended/Hybrid Environments. Proceedings from: The 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED2014). Valencia, Spain: IATED.
    Transient response of laminar premixed flame to a radially diverging/converging flow
    Transient response of laminar premixed flame to a radially diverging/converging flow
    Laminar flamelets are often used to model premixed turbulent combustion. The libraries of rates of conversion from chemical to thermal enthalpies used for flamelets are typically based on counter-flow, stained laminar planar flames under steady conditions. The current research seeks further understanding of the effect of stretch on premixed flames by considering laminar flame dynamics in a cylindrically-symmetric outward radial flow geometry (i.e., inwardly propagating flame). This numerical model was designed to study the flame response when the flow and scalar fields align (i.e., no tangential strain on the flame) while the flame either expands (positive stretch) or contracts (negative stretch, which is a case that has been seldom explored) radially. The transient response of a laminar premixed flame has been investigated by applying a sinusoidal variation of mass flow rate at the inlet boundary with different frequencies to compare key characteristics of a steady unstretched flame to the dynamics of an unsteady stretched flame. An energy index (EI), which is the integration of the source term in the energy equation over all control volumes in the computational domain, was selected for the comparison. The transient response of laminar premixed flames, when subjected to positive and negative stretch, results in amplitude decrease and phase shift increase with increasing frequency. Other characteristics, such as the deviation of the EI at the mean mass flow rate between when the flame is expanding and contracting, are nonmonotonic with frequency. Also, the response of fuel lean flames is more sensitive to the frequency of the periodic stretching compared to a stoichiometric flame. An analysis to seek universality of transient flame responses across lean methane-air flames of different equivalence ratios (i.e., 1.0 to 0.7) using Damköhler Numbers (i.e., the ratio of a flow to chemical time scales) had limited success., Sahafzadeh, M., Kostiuk, L. W., & Dworkin, S. B. (2017). Transient response of a laminar premixed flame to a radially diverging/converging flow. Combustion and Flame, 179, 51-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2017.01.015
    Transmission Ultrasound to guide Minimally Invasive Thermal Therapy
    Transmission Ultrasound to guide Minimally Invasive Thermal Therapy
    Online version of a conference paper originally published as: Transmission Ultrasound to guide Minimally Invasive Thermal Therapy, E. Soleimankhani and M.C.Kolios (2007), In Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, pp.2481-2484 Publisher URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/4409572/4409573/04410029.pdf?arnumber=4410029
    Transnational, Multi-Local Motherhood: Experiences of Separation and Reunification among Latin American Families in Canada
    Transnational, Multi-Local Motherhood: Experiences of Separation and Reunification among Latin American Families in Canada
    Originally published as: Bernhard, J. K., Landolt, P., & Goldring, L. (2005). Transnational, multi-local motherhood: Experiences of separation and reunification among Latin American families in Canada. CERIS Working Paper No. 40.
    Transnationalizing Families: Canadian Immigration Policy and the Spatial Fragmentation of Care-giving among Latin American Newcomers
    Transnationalizing Families: Canadian Immigration Policy and the Spatial Fragmentation of Care-giving among Latin American Newcomers
    Preprint of an article later published as: Bernhard, Judith K.; Landolt, Patricia; Goldring, Luin. Transnationalizing Families: Canadian Immigration Policy and the Spatial Fragmentation of Care-giving among Latin American Newcomers . International Migration, Volume 47, Number 2, June 2009, pp. 3-31(29).
    Travel and us: The impact of mode share on sentiment using geo-social media and GIS
    Travel and us: The impact of mode share on sentiment using geo-social media and GIS
    Commute stress is a serious health problem that impacts nearly everyone. Considering that microblogged geo-locational information offers new insight into human attitudes, the present research examined the utility of geo-social media data for understanding how different active and inactive travel modes affect feelings of pleasure, or displeasure, in two major U.S. cities: Chicago, Illinois and Washington D.C. A popular approach was used to derive a sentiment index (pleasure or valence) for each travel Tweet. Methodologically, exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) and global and spatial regression models were used to examine the geography of all travel modes and factors affecting their valence. After adjusting for spatial error associated with socioeconomic, environmental, weather, and temporal factors, spatial autoregression models proved superior to the base global model. The results showed that water and pedestrian travel were universally associated with positive valences. Bicycling also favorably influenced valence, albeit only in D.C. A noteworthy finding was the negative influence temperature and humidity had on valence. The outcomes from this research should be considered when additional evidence is needed to elevate commuter sentiment values in practice and policy, especially in regards to active transportation., Greg Rybarczyk, Syagnik Banerjee, Melissa D. Starking-Szymanski & Richard R. Shaker (2018) Travel and us: the impact of mode share on sentiment using geo-social media and GIS, Journal of Location Based Services, 12:1, 40-62, DOI: 10.1080/17489725.2018.1468039
    Trees in Canadian Cities: Indispensable Life Form for Urban Sustainability
    Trees in Canadian Cities: Indispensable Life Form for Urban Sustainability
    We argue that a healthy urban forest contributes immensely to the sustainability of cities. The argument is based on a comprehensive array of values elicited from Canadians in several cities. To begin, we define the urban forest as inclusive of all the trees in the city and thus representing the predominant contributor to a city’s green infrastructure. Then we enumerate and explain the broad diversity of ways in which urban people value trees in the city. We, thus, show the myriad pathways by which trees contribute positively to any city’s social, economic, and ecological sustainability. Following a short summary of the ways in which trees may detract from people’s quality of life, we present promising management directions for urban-forest improvement, as we understand the situation in Canada. We conclude that all cities can enhance their sustainability by improving the urban forest., Duinker, P. N., Ordóñez, C., James W N Steenberg, Miller, K. H., Toni, S. A., & Nitoslawski, S. A. (2015). Trees in canadian cities: Indispensable life form for urban sustainability. Basel: MDPI AG. doi:10.3390/su7067379, (This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning, Development and Management of Sustainable Cities)
    Trends in the Usage of ISI Bibliometric Data: Uses, Abuses, and Implications
    Trends in the Usage of ISI Bibliometric Data: Uses, Abuses, and Implications
    Originally published in: portal: Libraries and the Academy, 5(1): 105-125, 2005. http://muse.jhu.edu/article/177787
    Troubled Relationships in Early Childhood Education: Parent-Teacher Interactions in Ethnoculturally Diverse Child Care Settings
    Troubled Relationships in Early Childhood Education: Parent-Teacher Interactions in Ethnoculturally Diverse Child Care Settings
    Online version of an article originally published as: Bernhard, Judith K., Marie Louise Lefebvre, Kenise Murphy Kilbride, Gyda Chud and Rika Lange. 1998. Troubled Relationships in Early Childhood Education: Parent–Teacher Interactions in Ethnoculturally Diverse Child Care Settings. Early Education & Development. 9(1):5-28. < Publisher URL: http://www.informaworld.com/10.1207/s15566935eed0901_1 >.
    Trunk muscle co-activation using functional electrical stimulation modifies center of pressure fluctuations during quiet sitting by increasing trunk stiffness
    Trunk muscle co-activation using functional electrical stimulation modifies center of pressure fluctuations during quiet sitting by increasing trunk stiffness
    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced co-activation of trunk muscles during quiet sitting. We hypothesized that FES applied to the trunk muscles will increase trunk stiffness. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare the center of pressure (COP) fluctuations during unsupported and FES-assisted quiet sitting - an experimental study and; 2) investigate how FES influences sitting balance - an analytical (simulation) study. Methods The experimental study involved 15 able-bodied individuals who were seated on an instrumented chair. During the experiment, COP of the body projected on the seating surface was calculated to compare sitting stability of participants during unsupported and FES-assisted quiet sitting. The analytical (simulation) study examined dynamics of quiet sitting using an inverted pendulum model, representing the body, and a proportional-derivative (PD) controller, representing the central nervous system control. This model was used to analyze the relationship between increased trunk stiffness and COP fluctuations. Results In the experimental study, the COP fluctuations showed that: i) the mean velocity, mean frequency and the power frequency were higher during FES-assisted sitting; ii) the frequency dispersion for anterior-posterior fluctuations was smaller during FES-assisted sitting; and iii) the mean distance, range and centroidal frequency did not change during FES-assisted sitting. The analytical (simulation) study showed that increased mechanical stiffness of the trunk had the same effect on COP fluctuations as the FES. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that FES applied to the key trunk muscles increases the speed of the COP fluctuations by increasing the trunk stiffness during quiet sitting., Milosevic, M., Masani, K., Wu, N., McConville, K. M. V., & Popovic, M. R. (2015). Trunk muscle co-activation using functional electrical stimulation modifies center of pressure fluctuations during quiet sitting by increasing trunk stiffness. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 12, 99.