Research

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  • Trends in the Usage of ISI Bibliometric Data: Uses, Abuses, and Implications
    Trends in the Usage of ISI Bibliometric Data: Uses, Abuses, and Implications
    Originally published in: portal: Libraries and the Academy, 5(1): 105-125, 2005. http://muse.jhu.edu/article/177787
    Troubled Relationships in Early Childhood Education: Parent-Teacher Interactions in Ethnoculturally Diverse Child Care Settings
    Troubled Relationships in Early Childhood Education: Parent-Teacher Interactions in Ethnoculturally Diverse Child Care Settings
    Online version of an article originally published as: Bernhard, Judith K., Marie Louise Lefebvre, Kenise Murphy Kilbride, Gyda Chud and Rika Lange. 1998. Troubled Relationships in Early Childhood Education: Parent–Teacher Interactions in Ethnoculturally Diverse Child Care Settings. Early Education & Development. 9(1):5-28. < Publisher URL: http://www.informaworld.com/10.1207/s15566935eed0901_1 >.
    Trunk muscle co-activation using functional electrical stimulation modifies center of pressure fluctuations during quiet sitting by increasing trunk stiffness
    Trunk muscle co-activation using functional electrical stimulation modifies center of pressure fluctuations during quiet sitting by increasing trunk stiffness
    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced co-activation of trunk muscles during quiet sitting. We hypothesized that FES applied to the trunk muscles will increase trunk stiffness. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare the center of pressure (COP) fluctuations during unsupported and FES-assisted quiet sitting - an experimental study and; 2) investigate how FES influences sitting balance - an analytical (simulation) study. Methods The experimental study involved 15 able-bodied individuals who were seated on an instrumented chair. During the experiment, COP of the body projected on the seating surface was calculated to compare sitting stability of participants during unsupported and FES-assisted quiet sitting. The analytical (simulation) study examined dynamics of quiet sitting using an inverted pendulum model, representing the body, and a proportional-derivative (PD) controller, representing the central nervous system control. This model was used to analyze the relationship between increased trunk stiffness and COP fluctuations. Results In the experimental study, the COP fluctuations showed that: i) the mean velocity, mean frequency and the power frequency were higher during FES-assisted sitting; ii) the frequency dispersion for anterior-posterior fluctuations was smaller during FES-assisted sitting; and iii) the mean distance, range and centroidal frequency did not change during FES-assisted sitting. The analytical (simulation) study showed that increased mechanical stiffness of the trunk had the same effect on COP fluctuations as the FES. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that FES applied to the key trunk muscles increases the speed of the COP fluctuations by increasing the trunk stiffness during quiet sitting., Milosevic, M., Masani, K., Wu, N., McConville, K. M. V., & Popovic, M. R. (2015). Trunk muscle co-activation using functional electrical stimulation modifies center of pressure fluctuations during quiet sitting by increasing trunk stiffness. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 12, 99.
    Truth, Superassertability, and Conceivability
    Truth, Superassertability, and Conceivability
    The superassertability theory of truth, inspired by Crispin Wright (1992, 2003), holds that a statement is true iff it is superassertable in the following sense: it possesses warrant that cannot be defeated by any improvement of our information. While initially promising, the superassertability theory of truth is vulnerable to a persistent difficulty highlighted by Van Cleve (1996) and Horgan (1995) but not properly fleshed out: it is formally/informally illegitimate in a similar sense that unsophisticated epistemic theories of truth (theories that identify truth with bare warranted assertability) are widely acknowledged to be. Sustained analysis reveals that the unrestricted formal/informal legitimacy argument is firmly grounded in first-person conceivability/possibility evidence.
    Trying to Smart-In-Up and Cleanup Our Act by Linking Regional Growth Planning, Brownfields Remediation, and Urban Infill in Southern Ontario Cities
    Trying to Smart-In-Up and Cleanup Our Act by Linking Regional Growth Planning, Brownfields Remediation, and Urban Infill in Southern Ontario Cities
    The reuse of brownfields as locations for urban intensification has become a core strategy in government sustainability efforts aimed at remediating pollution, curbing sprawl and prioritizing renewal, regeneration, and retrofitting. In Ontario, Canada’s most populous, industrialized, and brownfield-laden province, a suite of progressive policies and programs have been introduced to not only facilitate the assessment and remediation of the brownfields supply, but to also steer development demand away from peripheral greenfields and towards urban brownfields in a manner that considers a wider regional perspective. This article examines the character and extent of brownfields infill development that has taken place in three Ontario cities (Toronto, Waterloo, and Kingston) since the provincial policy shift in the early 2000s. Using property assessment data and cleanup records, the research finds that redevelopment activity has been extensive in both scale and character, particularly in Toronto where the real estate market has been strong. While the results are promising in terms of government efforts to promote smarter growth that builds “in and up” instead of out, they also reveal that government could be doing more to facilitate redevelopment and influence its sustainability character, particularly in weaker markets., Sousa, C. D. (2017). Trying to smart-in-up and cleanup our act by linking regional growth planning, brownfields remediation, and urban infill in southern Ontario cities. Urban Planning, 2(3), 5-17. doi:10.17645/up.v2i3.1026
    Trypan Blue Dye Enters Viable Cells Incubated with the Pore-Forming Toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus
    Trypan Blue Dye Enters Viable Cells Incubated with the Pore-Forming Toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus
    Tran S-L, Puhar A, Ngo-Camus M, Ramarao N (2011) Trypan Blue Dye Enters Viable Cells Incubated with the Pore-Forming Toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus. PLoS ONE 6(9): e22876. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022876
    Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns
    Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns
    Developing platforms that allow tuning cell functionality through incorporating physical, chemical, or mechanical cues onto the material surfaces is one of the key challenges in research in the field of biomaterials. In this respect, various approaches have been proposed and numerous structures have been developed on a variety of materials. Most of these approaches, however, demand a multistep process or post-chemical treatment. Therefore, a simple approach would be desirable to develop bio-functionalized platforms for effectively modulating cell adhesion and consequently programming cell functionality without requiring any chemical or biological surface treatment. This study introduces a versatile yet simple laser approach to structure silicon (Si) chips into cytophobic/cytophilic patterns in order to modulate cell adhesion and proliferation. These patterns are fabricated on platforms through direct laser processing of Si substrates, which renders a desired computer-generated configuration into patterns. We investigate the morphology, chemistry, and wettability of the platform surfaces. Subsequently, we study the functionality of the fabricated platforms on modulating cervical cancer cells (HeLa) behaviour. The results from in vitro studies suggest that the nanostructures efficiently repel HeLa cells and drive them to migrate onto untreated sites. The study of the morphology of the cells reveals that cells evade the cytophobic area by bending and changing directions. Additionally, cell patterning, cell directionality, cell channelling, and cell trapping are achieved by developing different platforms with specific patterns. The flexibility and controllability of this approach to effectively structure Si substrates to cell-repulsive and cell adhesive patterns offer perceptible outlook for developing bio-functionalized platforms for a variety biomedical devices. Moreover, this approach could pave the way for developing anti-cancer platforms that are repellent to cancer cells but favourable for other types of cells., P. Premnath, et al., Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns, Exp Cell Res (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2015.07.028
    Turbo codes for multi-hop wireless sensor networks with decode-and-forward mechanism
    Turbo codes for multi-hop wireless sensor networks with decode-and-forward mechanism
    Wireless channels are prone to many impairments, such as noise and fading. Weak channels between the nodes in the wireless sensor network (WSN) can cause reception of erroneous packets. Retransmission mechanisms are mainly mused to tackle the problem of erroneous reception in WSN communication protocols. Weak channels can cause high number of retransmissions in order to deliver a packet correctly, which will consume high energy of both the transmitting and the receiving nodes. Error correcting codes (ECCs) can be used to reduce number of retransmissions, but most ECCs have complex decoding algorithms, which leads to high processing energy consumption at the receiving nodes in the WSN. In this paper, we present a low power consumption decode-and-forward approach for the multi-hop WSNs; a serial concatenation convolutional codes (SCCC) encoder is implemented at the source node while the complex iterative decoding algorithm is shifted to the sink (base station). The intermediate nodes run a Viterbi decoding algorithm to decode only the inner code of the SCCC encoder. We investigate the effect of changing constraint length of both the inner and the outer codes and the effect of changing encoding block size. We show that most packets can be decoded at the base station at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) channels with the penalty of small energy loss in decoding the packet at the nodes in the network., Abughalieh, N., Steenhaut, K., Nowé, A., & Anpalagan, A. (2014). Turbo codes for multi-hop wireless sensor networks with decode-and-forward mechanism. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2014(1), 1-13.
    Two Kinds of A Priori Infallibility
    Two Kinds of A Priori Infallibility
    On rationalist infallibilism, a wide range of both (i) analytic and (ii) synthetic a priori propositions can be infallibly justified (or absolutely warranted), i.e., justified to a degree that entails their truth and precludes their falsity. Though rationalist infallibilism is indisputably running its course, adherence to at least one of the two species of infallible a priori justification refuses to disappear from mainstream epistemology. Among others, Putnam (1978) still professes the a priori infallibility of some category (i) propositions, while Burge (1986, 1988, 1996) and Lewis (1996) have recently affirmed the a priori infallibility of some category (ii) propositions. In this paper, I take aim at rationalist infallibilism by calling into question the a priori infallibility of both analytic and synthetic propositions. The upshot will be twofold: first, rationalist infallibilism unsurprisingly emerges as a defective epistemological doctrine, and second, more importantly, the case for the a priori infallibility of one or both categories of propositions turns out to lack cogency., This paper is forthcoming in Synthese.
    Two-Dimensional Velocity Estimation for Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography
    Two-Dimensional Velocity Estimation for Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography
    Online version of a conference paper originally published as: Two-Dimensional Velocity Estimation for Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography, Darren Morofke, Michael C. Kolios, Victor X.D. Yang, Coherence Domain Optical Methods and Optical Coherence Tomography in Biomedicine XI, edited by James G. Fujimoto, Joseph A. Izatt, Valery V. Tuchin Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6429, 64292F, (2007) Publisher URL: http://spie.org/x648.html?product_id=701372
    Ultrasound Backscatter Signal Characterization and Classification Using Autoregressive Modeling and Machine Learning Algorithms
    Ultrasound Backscatter Signal Characterization and Classification Using Autoregressive Modeling and Machine Learning Algorithms
    Online version of a conference paper originally published as: Ultrasound Backscatter Signal Characterization and Classification Using Autoregressive Modeling and Machine Learning Algorithms N.R. Farnoud, S. Krishnan and M.C. Kolios In Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (2003), pp. 2861-2864 Publisher URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?isnumber=28615&arnumber=1280515&count=256&index=223
    Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms
    Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms
    Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR), and distinct mechanism(s) that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may improve targeted drug delivery., Fekri F, Delos Santos RC, Karshafian R, Antonescu CN (2016) Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms. PLoS ONE 11(6): e0156754. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156754