Research

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  • An architecture of water: creating H2O thresholds.
    An architecture of water: creating H2O thresholds.
    Each year, at the start of the winter semester, undergraduate and graduate students, faculty and staff, and invited guests come together to take part in the annual Collaborative Exercise (CEx) held at the Department of Architectural Science at Ryerson University. The five-day event challenges students to address an important contemporary issue. The intention of the exercise is to engage students to collaborate, think and design, while investigating a topic related to architecture and the built environment. Through this experience, students have the opportunity to work with students from other years in the Department’s program, to achieve a common design goal. The Collaborative Exercise ends with an exhibition at the Paul H. Cocker Gallery in the Ryerson University’s Architecture Building. This book showcases the outcomes of the 2016 Collaborative Exercise, entitled An Architecture of Water: Creating H2O thresholds., Kapelos, G. T. (Ed.). (2017). An architecture of water: creating H2O thresholds. Toronto, ON, Canada: Department of Architectural Science, Faculty of Engineering & Architectural Science, Ryerson University.
    An axiomatic theory of engineering design information
    An axiomatic theory of engineering design information
    Unfortunately, for some reason the paper is rendered in backwards page order. Sorry.
    An ergonomics action research demonstration: integrating human factors into assembly design processes
    An ergonomics action research demonstration: integrating human factors into assembly design processes
    In action research (AR), the researcher participates ‘in’ the actions in an organisation, while simultaneously reflecting ‘on’ the actions to promote learning for both the organisation and the researchers. This paper demonstrates a longitudinal AR collaboration with an electronics manufacturing firm where the goal was to improve the organisation’s ability to integrate human factors (HF) proactively into their design processes. During the three-year collaboration, all meetings, workshops, interviews and reflections were digitally recorded and qualitatively analysed to inform new ‘actions’. By the end of the collaboration, HF tools with targets and sign-off by the HF specialist were integrated into several stages of the design process, and engineers were held accountable for meeting the HF targets. We conclude that the AR approach combined with targeting multiple initiatives at different stages of the design process helped the organisation find ways to integrate HF into their processes in a sustainable way. Practitioner Summary: Researchers acted as a catalyst to help integrate HF into the engineering design process in a sustainable way. This paper demonstrates how an AR approach can help achieve HF integration, the benefits of using a reflective stance and one method for reporting an AR study., J. Village, M. Greig, F. Salustri, S. Zolfaghari & W.P. Neumann (2014) An ergonomics action research demonstration: integrating human factors into assembly design processes, Ergonomics, 57:10, 1574-1589, DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2014.938128 Recipient of the Liberty Mutual Award for 2015. (http://www.ergonomics.org.uk/awards/liberty-mutual-award/)
    An examination of current patient education interventions delivered to culturally diverse patients following CABG surgery.
    An examination of current patient education interventions delivered to culturally diverse patients following CABG surgery.
    The design of current educational initiatives for heart surgery patients is based on feedback from individuals of Western European origin. The relevance of these initiatives is unknown when provided to individuals from non-Western European cultures. This study examined the cultural relevance of heart surgery patient educational initiatives delivered to individuals of diverse backgrounds. It used a non-experimental descriptive design involving 252 participants. Cultural relevance was assessed through self-care behaviours performed as recommended in the educational initiative. The participants of non-Western European origin were found to engage in more work-related activities and fewer self-care behaviours than their Western European counterparts in the first week following hospital discharge, indicating lack of adherence to educational recommendations. The study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that current self-care educational initiatives may not be culturally relevant. Continued evaluation to determine reasons why specific cultural groups engage in specific types of behaviour is needed., Fredericks, S., Sidani, S., Vahabi, M., Micevski, V. (2012). An examination of current patient education interventions delivered to culturally diverse patients following CABG surgery. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research (Focus Issue: Acute and Critical Care), 44, 1, 76-9
    An examination of the post-discharge recovery experience of patients who have had heart surgery.
    An examination of the post-discharge recovery experience of patients who have had heart surgery.
    Background: Although resources to promote recovery following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) and Valve Replacement (VR) surgery are provided, over a quarter of all patients are being readmitted to hospitals with post-operative complications experienced during the first 3 months of recovery. A possible reason for the high rate of readmission following heart surgery is the quality of patient engagement in the performance of self-care behaviours. In particular, patients who have had CABG and/or VR may not be fully engaged in the required self-care behaviours during their first 3 months of recovery. Research Question: This review was conducted to address the clinically relevant question: What is the post-operative recovery experience of the individual who has had CABG and/or VR?. Methods: A review of studies that examined the post-operative recovery experience of patients who had CABG and/or VR was conducted. Results: Findings suggest the type of post-operative complication identified during the first 3 months of recovery following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) and Valve Replacement (VR) was either cognitive or cardiac in nature. As well, the number of self-care behaviours patients engage in during their hospital discharge was slightly less than the number of behaviours patients performed while in hospital. Conclusion and Relevance to Clinical Practice: As close to half of the sample reported some form of cognitive impairment within the first 3 months following surgery, it is possible that this impairment may have influenced the type and number of self-care behaviours performed. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the best time to educate patients during their recovery following hospital discharge., Fredericks, S. & DaSilva, M. (2010). An examination of the post-discharge recovery experience of patients who have had heart surgery. Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness: An International Journal, 2, 4, pp. 281-291.
    An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation modeling
    An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation modeling
    Title: An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation models.Background: Socioeconomic indicators have been inversely associated with overweight and obesity, with stronger associations observed among women. The objective of the present secondary analysis was to examine the relationships among socioeconomic measures and adiposity for men and women participating in the Ontario Food Survey (OFS), and to explore lifestyle factors as potential mediators of these associations.Methods: The cross-sectional 1997/98 OFS collected anthropometric measurements, a food frequency questionnaire, data on socio-demographics (age, sex, income, and education) and physical activity from 620 women and 467 men, ages 18 to 75. Based on the 2003 Health Canada guidelines, waist circumference and BMI values were used to derive least risk, increased risk, and high risk adiposity groups. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine increased risk and high risk adiposity in relation to education and income, with leisure time physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and smoking status included as potential mediators of these associations.Results: The probability of high risk adiposity was directly associated with education (β-0.19, p < 0.05) and income (β-0.22, p < 0.05) for women, but not for men. Fruit and vegetable intake was a marginally significant mediator of the relationship between education and high risk adiposity for women. Increased risk adiposity was not associated with income or education for men or women. Conclusion: The socioeconomic context of adiposity continues to differ greatly between men and women. For women only in the OFS, fruit and vegetable intake contributed to the inverse association between education and high risk adiposity; however, additional explanatory factors are yet to be determined., International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2007, 4:8. doi:10.1186/1479- 5868-4-8
    An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation modeling
    An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation modeling
    Title An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation models. Background Socioeconomic indicators have been inversely associated with overweight and obesity, with stronger associations observed among women. The objective of the present secondary analysis was to examine the relationships among socioeconomic measures and adiposity for men and women participating in the Ontario Food Survey (OFS), and to explore lifestyle factors as potential mediators of these associations. Methods The cross-sectional 1997/98 OFS collected anthropometric measurements, a food frequency questionnaire, data on socio-demographics (age, sex, income, and education) and physical activity from 620 women and 467 men, ages 18 to 75. Based on the 2003 Health Canada guidelines, waist circumference and BMI values were used to derive least risk, increased risk, and high risk adiposity groups. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine increased risk and high risk adiposity in relation to education and income, with leisure time physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and smoking status included as potential mediators of these associations. Results The probability of high risk adiposity was directly associated with education (β-0.19, p < 0.05) and income (β-0.22, p < 0.05) for women, but not for men. Fruit and vegetable intake was a marginally significant mediator of the relationship between education and high risk adiposity for women. Increased risk adiposity was not associated with income or education for men or women. Conclusion The socioeconomic context of adiposity continues to differ greatly between men and women. For women only in the OFS, fruit and vegetable intake contributed to the inverse association between education and high risk adiposity; however, additional explanatory factors are yet to be determined., Ward, H., Tarasuk, V., Mendelson, R., & McKeown-Eyssen, G. (2007). An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the ontario food survey through structural equation modeling. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 4(1), 8-8. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-4-8 Export As... PrintEmail
    An exploration of user-generated wireless broadband infrastructures in digital cities
    An exploration of user-generated wireless broadband infrastructures in digital cities
    This paper examines the broadband connectivity options available in digital cities. It offers an overview of services provided by commercial operators, the public sector and by citizens themselves, arguing that shortcomings in existing fixed broadband and commercial mobile broadband services provide an opportunity for citizens to share their own wireless broadband connections. It explores Wi-Fi hotspot provider FON's approach to extending mobile broadband infrastructure by enabling shared connections within communities. The paper outlines some reasons why this specific user-generated approach to infrastructure provision has been unable to deliver highly robust broadband infrastructure, and discusses ways in which users and the public sector can be involved in developing new mobile infrastructures that will meet citizens' needs., Middleton, C. A., & Bryne, A. An Exploration of User-Generated Wireless Broadband Infrastructures in Digital Cities. Telematics & Infomatics, doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2010.08.003.
    An injectable glass polyalkenoate cement engineered for fracture fixation and stabilization
    An injectable glass polyalkenoate cement engineered for fracture fixation and stabilization
    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential as bio-adhesives due to their ease of application, appropriate mechanical properties, radiopacity and chemical adhesion to bone. Aluminium (Al)-free GPCs have been discussed in the literature, but have proven difficult to balance injectability with mechanical integrity. For example, zinc-based, Al-free GPCs reported compressive strengths of 63 MPa, but set in under 2 min. Here, the authors design injectable GPCs (IGPCs) based on zinc-containing, Al-free silicate compositions containing GeO2, substituted for ZnO at 3% increments through the series. The setting reactions, injectability and mechanical properties of these GPCs were evaluated using both a hand-mix (h) technique, using a spatula for sample preparation and application and an injection (i) technique, using a 16-gauge needle, post mixing, for application. GPCs ability to act as a carrier for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also evaluated. Germanium (Ge) and BSA containing IGPCs were produced and reported to have working times between 26 and 44 min and setting times between 37 and 55 min; the extended handling properties being as a result of less Ge. The incorporation of BSA into the cement had no effect on the handling and mechanical properties, but the latter were found to have increased compression strength with the addition of Ge from between 27 and 37 MPa after 30 days maturation. Keywords: fracture fixation; distal radius fracture; germanium oxide; polyacrylic acid; injectable glass polyalkenoate cements; bovine serum albumin, Khader, B., Peel, S., & Towler, M. (2017). An Injectable Glass Polyalkenoate Cement Engineered for Fracture Fixation and Stabilization. Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 8(3), 25., (This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
    An innovative dual-column system for heavy metallic ion sorption by natural zeolite
    An innovative dual-column system for heavy metallic ion sorption by natural zeolite
    This study investigates the design and performance of a novel sorption system containing natural zeolite. The apparatus consists of packed, fixed-bed, dual-columns with custom automated controls and sampling chambers, connected in series and stock fed by a metering pump at a controlled adjustable distribution. The purpose of the system is to remove heavy metallic ions predominately found in acid mine drainage, including lead (Pb2+), copper (Cu2+), iron (Fe3+), nickel (Ni2+) and zinc (Zn2+), combined in equal equivalence to form an acidified total 10 meq/L aqueous solution. Reported trends on the zeolite’s preference to these heavy metallic ions is established in the system breakthrough curve, as Pb2+ >> Fe3+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ >> Ni2+. Within a 3-h contact period, Pb2+ is completely removed from both columns. Insufficient Ni2+ removal is achieved by either column with the promptest breakthrough attained, as zeolite demonstrates the least affinity towards it; however, a 48.97% removal is observed in the cumulative collection at the completion of the analysis period. The empty bed contact times for the first and second columns are 20 and 30 min, respectively; indicating a higher bed capacity at breakthrough and a lower usage rate of the zeolite mineral in the second column. This sorption system experimentally demonstrates the potential for industrial wastewater treatment technology development. Keywords: zeolite; sorption; packed fixed-bed columns; heavy metallic ions; automated sampling design, Ciosek, A. L., Luk, G. K. (2017). An Innovative Dual-Column System for Heavy Metallic Ion Sorption by Natural Zeolite. Applied Sciences, 7(8), 795., (This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies)
    An interval-size illusion: The influence of timbre on the perceived size of melodic intervals
    An interval-size illusion: The influence of timbre on the perceived size of melodic intervals
    In four experiments, we investigated the influence of timbre on perceived interval size. In Experiment 1, musically untrained participants heard two successive tones and rated the pitch distance between them. Tones were separated by six or seven semitones and varied in timbre. Pitch changes were accompanied by a congruent timbre change (e.g., ascending interval involving a shift from a dull to a bright timbre), an incongruent timbre change (e.g., ascending interval involving a shift from a bright to a dull timbre), or no timbre change. Ratings of interval size were strongly influenced by timbre. The six-semitone interval with a congruent timbre change was perceived to be larger than the seven-semitone interval with an incongruent timbre change (interval illusion). Experiment 2 revealed similar effects for musically trained participants. In Experiment 3, participants compared the size of two intervals presented one after the other. Effects of timbre were again observed, including evidence of an interval illusion. Experiment 4 confirmed that timbre manipulations did not distort the perceived pitch of tones. Changes in timbre can expand or contract the perceived size of intervals without distorting individual pitches. We discuss processes underlying interval size perception and their relation to pitch perception mechanisms.
    Analysis of Ultrasound Backscatter from Ensembles of Cells and Isolated Nuclei
    Analysis of Ultrasound Backscatter from Ensembles of Cells and Isolated Nuclei
    Online version of a conference paper originally published as: Analysis of Ultrasound Backscatter from Ensembles of Cells and Isolated Nuclei, M.C. Kolios, G.J. Czarnota, M. Hussain, F. S. Foster, J.W. Hunt and M.D. Sherar (2001), In Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Publisher URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?isnumber=21384&arnumber=991948&count=205&index=92