Research

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  • Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities and Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Profiles of Wild-Harvested and Cultivated Edible Canadian Marine Red Macroalgae
    Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities and Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Profiles of Wild-Harvested and Cultivated Edible Canadian Marine Red Macroalgae
    Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities and mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) profiles of methanol extracts from edible wild-harvested (Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata) and cultivated (C. crispus) marine red macroalgae were studied herein. Palythine, asterina-330, shinorine, palythinol, porphyra-334 and usujirene MAAs were identified in the macroalgal extracts by LC/MS/MS. Extract reducing activity rankings were (p < 0.001): wild P. palmata > cultivated C. crispus = wild M. stellatus > wild low-UV C. crispus > wild high-UV C. crispus; whereas oxygen radical absorbance capacities were (p < 0.001): wild M. stellatus > wild P. palmata > cultivated C. crispus > wild low-UV C. crispus > wild high-UV C. crispus. Extracts were antiproliferative against HeLa and U-937 cells (p < 0.001) from 0.125–4 mg/mL, 24 h. Wild P. palmata and cultivated C. crispus extracts increased (p < 0.001) HeLa caspase-3/7 activities and the proportion of cells arrested at Sub G1 (apoptotic) compared to wild-harvested C. crispus and M. stellatus extracts. HeLa cells incubated with wild P. palmata and cultivated C. crispus extracts also exhibited morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis (shrinkage, rounding). Thus, extracts rich in low-polarity usujirene and polar palythine and asterina-330 MAAs were antiproliferative as inducers of apoptosis in HeLa cells., Athukorala, Y., Trang, S., Kwok, C., & Yuan, Y. V. (2016). Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities and mycosporine-like amino acid profiles of wild-harvested and cultivated edible canadian marine red macroalgae. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 21(1), E119. doi:10.3390/molecules21010119, (This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants—A Risk-Benefit Analysis for Health)
    Antitumor Effects of Combining Docetaxel (Taxotere) with the Antivascular Action of Ultrasound Stimulated Microbubbles
    Antitumor Effects of Combining Docetaxel (Taxotere) with the Antivascular Action of Ultrasound Stimulated Microbubbles
    Ultrasound stimulated microbubbles (USMB) are being investigated for their potential to promote the uptake of anticancer agents into tumor tissue by exploiting their ability to enhance microvascular permeability. At sufficiently high ultrasound transmit amplitudes it has also recently been shown that USMB treatments can, on their own, induce vascular damage, shutdown blood flow, and inhibit tumor growth. The objective of this study is to examine the antitumor effects of ‘antivascular’ USMB treatments in conjunction with chemotherapy, which differs from previous work which has sought to enhance drug uptake with USMBs by increasing vascular permeability. Conceptually this is a strategy similar to combining vascular disrupting agents with a chemotherapy, and we have selected the taxane docetaxel (Taxotere) for evaluating this approach as it has previously been shown to have potent antitumor effects when combined with small molecule vascular disrupting agents. Experiments were conducted on PC3 tumors implanted in athymic mice. USMB treatments were performed at a frequency of 1 MHz employing sequences of 50 ms bursts (0.00024 duty cycle) at 1.65 MPa. USMB treatments were administered on a weekly basis for 4 weeks with docetaxel (DTX) being given intravenously at a dose level of 5 mg/kg. The USMB treatments, either alone or in combination with DTX, induced an acute reduction in tumor perfusion which was accompanied at the 24 hour point by significantly enhanced necrosis and apoptosis. Longitudinal experiments showed a modest prolongation in survival but no significant growth inhibition occurred in DTX–only and USMB-only treatment groups relative to control tumors. The combined USMB-DTX treatment group produced tumor shrinkage in weeks 4–6, and significant growth inhibition and survival prolongation relative to the control (p<0.001), USMB-only (p<0.01) and DTX-only treatment groups (p<0.01). These results suggest the potential of enhancing the antitumor activity of docetaxel by combining it with antivascular USMB effects., Goertz DE, Todorova M, Mortazavi O, Agache V, Chen B, Karshafian R, et al. (2012) Antitumor Effects of Combining Docetaxel (Taxotere) with the Antivascular Action of Ultrasound Stimulated Microbubbles. PLoS ONE 7(12): e52307.
    Anxiety, depression, and self-management: a systematic review.
    Anxiety, depression, and self-management: a systematic review.
    The purpose of this article was to address the clinically relevant question: In the presence of anxiety and/or depression, do patients who have had heart surgery engage in self-management behaviours following hospital discharge? A systematic review of 16 studies that examined the psychological condition of patients who had coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valvular replacement surgery was conducted. Moderate to severe levels of anxiety and depression exist during the first month of home recovery and appear to have an effect on performance of self-management behaviors. As the influence of patients' psychological condition is continued to be examined, it is imperative for health care providers to manage increased rates of anxiety and/or depression following heart surgery. Music and relaxation therapy are presented as evidenced based recommendations for managing anxiety and depression in patients following heart surgery., Fredericks, S., Lapum, J., Lo, J. (2012). Anxiety, depression, and self-management: A systematic review. Clinical Nursing Research: An International Journal, 21(4), 411-429.
    Apoyo a la participación de padres en las escuelas primarias: Un estudio etnográfico sobre un grupo latinoamericano en Canadá
    Apoyo a la participación de padres en las escuelas primarias: Un estudio etnográfico sobre un grupo latinoamericano en Canadá
    Online version of an article originally published as: Bernhard, J.K., Freire, M., Pacini-Ketchabaw, V. (2000). Apoyo a la participación de padres en las escuelas primarias: Un estudio etnográfico de un grupo latino americano en Canadá. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 8(52).
    Application Of Mathieu functions And The Point Matching Method To Elliptic Conductors
    Application Of Mathieu functions And The Point Matching Method To Elliptic Conductors
    Analysis of elliptic conductors, carrying a known total current, using the point matching method (PMM) in circular-cylinder coordinates [l] failed for the values of axes ratio b / a < 05, where a and b are the major and minor axes of the ellipse, respectively. This work shows that the use of elliptic-cylinder coordinates in conjunction with the point matching method overcomes this problem. This paper is a part of the work investigating the difficulties encountered in the point matching method, and is motivated by the fact that, despite its limitations, the method is still attractive as suggested by its use in recent papers [2]-141., Magnetics Conference, 1997. 1-4 Apr 1997. EP-04 - EP-04. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/INTMAG.1997.597692
    Application of Scaling-Law and CFD Modeling to Hydrodynamics of Circulating Biomass Fluidized Bed Gasifier
    Application of Scaling-Law and CFD Modeling to Hydrodynamics of Circulating Biomass Fluidized Bed Gasifier
    Two modeling approaches, the scaling-law and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) approaches, are presented in this paper. To save on experimental cost of the pilot plant, the scaling-law approach as a low-computational-cost method was adopted and a small scale column operating under ambient temperature and pressure was built. A series of laboratory tests and computer simulations were carried out to evaluate the hydrodynamic characteristics of a pilot fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. In the small scale column solids were fluidized. The pressure and other hydrodynamic properties were monitored for the validation of the scaling-law application. In addition to the scaling-law modeling method, the CFD approach was presented to simulate the gas-particle system in the small column. 2D CFD models were developed to simulate the hydrodynamic regime. The simulation results were validated with the experimental data from the small column. It was proved that the CFD model was able to accurately predict the hydrodynamics of the small column. The outcomes of this research present both the scaling law with the lower computational cost and the CFD modeling as a more robust method to suit various needs for the design of fluidized-bed gasifiers., Biglari, M., Liu, H., Elkamel, A., & Lohi, A. (2016). Application of scaling-law and CFD modeling to hydrodynamics of circulating biomass fluidized bed gasifier. Energies, 9(7), 504., (This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy from Forest Biomass)
    Application of grammar-based codes for lossless compression of digital mammograms
    Application of grammar-based codes for lossless compression of digital mammograms
    A newly developed grammar-based lossless source coding theory and its implementation was proposed in 1999 and 2000, respectively, by Yang and Kieffer. The code first transforms the original data sequence into an irreducible context-free grammar, which is then compressed using arithmetic coding. In the study of grammarbased coding for mammography applications, we encountered two issues: processing time and limited number of single-character grammar G variables. For the first issue, we discover a feature that can simplify the matching subsequence search in the irreducible grammar transform process. Using this discovery, an extended grammar code technique is proposed and the processing time of the grammar code can be significantly reduced. For the second issue, we propose to use double-character symbols to increase the number of grammar variables. Under the condition that all the G variables have the same probability of being used, our analysis shows that the double- and single-character approaches have the same compression rates. By using the methods proposed, we show that the grammar code can outperform three other schemes: Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW), arithmetic, and Huffman on compression ratio, and has similar error tolerance capabilities as LZW coding undersimilar circumstances., J. Electron. Imaging, Vol. 15, 013021 (2006) http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2178792
    Applying Agile Methodology in Mobile Software Engineering: Android Application Development and its Challenges
    Applying Agile Methodology in Mobile Software Engineering: Android Application Development and its Challenges
    Highly volatile requirements of mobile applications require adaptive software development methods. Several attempts to address challenges in mobile software engineering have found agile methodology to be appropriate for mobile application development. This project report provides a detailed analysis on various challenges involved in mobile software development which are addressed using Agile-SCRUM methodologies. An efficient mobile software development concept derived from Agile-Scrum methodology is designed in this project. A light-weight Android application for secure and incremental backup has been developed using the proposed methodology. An in-depth illustration of the practical experience in developing the application has been discussed. Unlike other prominent languages like Java, the use of Python for Android platform has emerged recently. Hence developing the secure-backup application in Python was a challenge, which has been dealt in this report. We believe our proposed methodology has a potential to help developers deliver improved quality of mobile applications in short time.
    Applying Habermas’ validity claims as a standard for critical discourse analysis
    Applying Habermas’ validity claims as a standard for critical discourse analysis
    It has been proposed that the theory and practice of information systems development could benefit from a more explicit consideration of concepts of rationality. Habermas’ communicative rationality has been proposed as an approach to improve the conditions for rational discourse in systems development, thereby improving outcomes (Klein and Hirschheim 1991), and applied at the project level (Ulrich 2001) and to specific episodes of managerial communications (Ngwenyama and Lee 1997). At the same time, it is understood that societal discourses and ideologies shape the external environments of organizational decision making. A variety of approaches has been proposed to analyze these discourses including qualitative techniques for reading or interpreting texts, artifacts, and social practices (Philips and Hardy 2002). This paper examines the way in which Habermasian validity claims can provide an explicit and ethical standard for critical discourse analysis in order to reveal the distortions that shape the institutional environments of technology decision making. It offers an approach to operationalizing Habermas’ validity claims for an analysis of media texts related to a case study involving learning technology., Cukier, W., Bauer, R., & Middleton, C. A. (2004). Applying Habermas’ Validity Claims as a Standard for Critical Discourse Analysis. In B. Kaplan, D. P. Truex III, D. Wastell, A. T. Wood-Harper & J. I. DeGross (Eds.), Information Systems Research: Relevant Theory and Informed Practice (pp. 233-258). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. doi: 10.1007/1-4020-8095- 6_14
    Applying Patient Centered Care to the Design and Implementation of Cardiovascular Surgical Interventions: Implications for Practice
    Applying Patient Centered Care to the Design and Implementation of Cardiovascular Surgical Interventions: Implications for Practice
    Fredericks, S., Lapum, J., Hui, G. (in press; Accepted Feb 19, 2015). Applying Patient Centered Care to the Design and Implementation of Cardiovascular Surgical Interventions: Implications for Practice. British Journal of Cardiac Nursing.
    Appropriate Curriculum: Enabling The Student To Meet The Transdisciplinary Challenges Of A Sustainable Society
    Appropriate Curriculum: Enabling The Student To Meet The Transdisciplinary Challenges Of A Sustainable Society
    A sustainable society at present world population levels is faced with many complex issues: curbing further human population growth, preventing nuclear, biological or chemical wars, soothing social and political tensions, fighting poverty, protecting the environment from poison and climatic change, coping with resource scarcity, and managing vulnerable ecosystems. Each one of the items in this list transcends our conventional disciplines. Considering further that all of the problems are connected makes it obvious that neither a scientifically illiterate public nor our professionals, traditionally trained in narrow disciplines, are capable of creating or maintaining a sustainable society.Scientific and ordinary literacy of the general public is a desirable if not a necessary preparation for a sustainable society. Can it be achieved through our present educational means, or is it necessary for education to change? Today, the alphabet and grammar have become simple enough for all to learn how to read and write with a minor effort, and illiteracy in developed countries is now the exception rather than the rule. Unfortunately, this is not the case with scientific literacy. To learn science today is hard and time consuming. Our scientific and engineering knowledge is fragmented into many disciplines, and our curricula in these fields are cluttered with insignificant details. The frustrating information overload prevents most contemporaries from becoming scientifically literate, and it is difficult to get even the simplest of scientific truths to a wide public.A new knowledge structure for the development of a unified science curriculum is presented in this paper. By using universal concepts and universally applicable algorithms of thinking, a knowledge core is presented which connects all the disciplines and avoids duplication. It is concluded that such a unified science reduces the quantity of information required for a broad view of existing knowledge, that the reduced effort in learning such a universal mental tool will motivate more students to think scientifically about broad issues, and that the professionals trained in transdisciplinary sciences will be able to see the "big picture" of the problems facing a sustainable society., Proceedings of the 1991 International Symposium on Technology and Society, 1991. ISTAS '91: 'Preparing for a Sustainable Society'. 21-22 Jun 1991: 264 - 270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISTAS.1991.700376
    Arctic Ecological Classifications Derived from Vegetation Community and Satellite Spectral Data
    Arctic Ecological Classifications Derived from Vegetation Community and Satellite Spectral Data
    As a result of the warming observed at high latitudes, there is significant potential for the balance of ecosystem processes to change, i.e., the balance between carbon sequestration and respiration may be altered, giving rise to the release of soil carbon through elevated ecosystem respiration. Gross ecosystem productivity and ecosystem respiration vary in relation to the pattern of vegetation community type and associated biophysical traits (e.g., percent cover, biomass, chlorophyll concentration, etc.). In an arctic environment where vegetation is highly variable across the landscape, the use of high spatial resolution imagery can assist in discerning complex patterns of vegetation and biophysical variables. The research presented here examines the relationship between ecological and spectral variables in order to generate an ecologically meaningful vegetation classification from high spatial resolution remote sensing data. Our methodology integrates ordination and image classifications techniques for two non-overlapping Arctic sites across a 5° latitudinal gradient (approximately 70° to 75°N). Ordination techniques were applied to determine the arrangement of sample sites, in relation to environmental variables, followed by cluster analysis to create ecological classes. The derived classes were then used to classify high spatial resolution IKONOS multispectral data. The results demonstrate moderate levels of success. Classifications had overall accuracies between 69%–79% and Kappa values of 0.54–0.69. Vegetation classes were generally distinct at each site with the exception of sedge wetlands. Based on the results presented here, the combination of ecological and remote sensing techniques can produce classifications that have ecological meaning and are spectrally separable in an arctic environment. These classification schemes are critical for modeling ecosystem processes., Atkinson, D., & Treitz, P. (2012). Arctic ecological classifications derived from vegetation community and satellite spectral data. Remote Sensing, 4(12), 3948-3971. doi:10.3390/rs4123948