Emetophobia, a fear of vomiting or vomit, appears to be more common and consequential than generally thought, and has recently become a growing focus of research and clinical attention. The purposes of this survey-based study were to provide support for existing research evidence, and to investigate emetophobia in novel ways based largely within a cognitive-behavioural framework. Individuals with emetophobia exhibited scores that appear likely to be clinically and practically meaningful on measures of relevant constructs, particularly visceral anxiety, body vigilance, perceived control, and disgust; emetophobic fears appeared to be somewhat distinct from other manifestations of health anxiety. Related cognitions and safety behaviours were assessed with pilot measures. Emetophobia was generally found to have an early onset, chronic course, and strong negative impact in numerous functional domains. Participants generally indicated that their treatment experiences had produced few lasting benefits, perhaps in part due to some potentially unique characteristics of these fears.