A non-destructive, multi-elemental analytical method using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry was developed for the quantification of enamel-manganese (MnE) for comparison to dietary and tap water intakes of Mn, as well as children’s height, Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test scores and Santa Ana (SA) dexterity test scores. Using the novel analytical method, enamel-iron (FeE), copper (CuE), zinc (ZnE) and lead (PbE) were also quantified and correlated to one another and to children’s height, IQ test scores and SA dexterity test scores. Significant positive correlations were observed between all essential trace elements in surface enamel (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn). MnE was found to have a weak correlation with estimated dietary intake of Mn (p < 0.01). No significant correlations were found between oral ingestion of Fe and FeE. Metal concentrations were observed to be highest in incisor enamel for all elements except zinc.