Energy efficient scheduled directional medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks
- Energy efficient scheduled directional medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks
Directional antennas have numerous advantages over traditional omnidirectional antennas, which include more spatial reuse, extended range, less interference, and less energy consumption. Directional antennas introduce deafness and new hidden terminal problems. Deafness may cause more collisions, and hidden terminal problems may result in more retransmissions, poor quality of service, more energy consumption, and less packet delivery ratio. Hence, it is important to design of an effective medium access protocol specifically for directional antennas in order to reap the benefits of directional antennas while managing deafness and hidden terminal problems, otherwise the challenges can adversely affect system performance. In wireless sensor networks, the sensors are battery powered with limited supply of energy. Therefore, energy efficient protocols and solutions are immensely important with the desired goal of extending the network lifetime longer than what is possible through the omnidirectional antennas. In this thesis, I have proposed an energy efficient scheduled directional medium access control protocol (DTRAMA) which is specially designed for the wireless sensor nodes which use directional antennas in wireless sensor networks. It is a traffic adaptive scheduled medium access protocol in which nodes create their transmission and sleep schedules on the basis of their traffic. Scheduled medium access for packet transmission is used to address the deafness and hidden terminal problems caused by the use of directional communication in contention based MAC protocols. Use of directional antenna reduces interference which indirectly improves packet delivery ratio by improving the signal to noise ratio and by reducing the packet error rate. DTRAMA is energy efficient: firstly because the nodes use directional data communication which requires lower node transmit power than the omnidirectional data communication for the same transmission range; and secondly, because the nodes schedule their sleep period to reduce idle listening and overhearing which improves energy efficiency. In DTRAMA, sleep schedule of the node is traffic adaptive which is essential to maximize the sleep period. The node, by using spatial reuse checks, reuses the wireless medium to the maximum extent to reap the spatial reuse benefits of the directional antenna. The nodes reduce their packet latency through spatial reuse. Through simulation and by using different topologies, I have compared the performance of DTRAMA with those of omnidirectional schedule MAC protocol (TRAMA) and contention based directional MAC protocol (DMAC), which clearly shows that DTRAMA outperforms TRAMA and DMAC in packet delivery ratio and outperforms TRAMA in terms of packet latency.