This paper investigates the vibrational characteristics of a machining spindle over its life span. The experimental investigation was carried out using tap testing, where the fundamental frequencies of the spindle system were recorded for different spindle categories, namely, ‘production’ and ‘prove-out’ spindles. Focussing on production spindles, the system ageing translated through a reduction in the system’s natural frequency is modelled as changes in the bearings’ stiffness. The experimentally evaluated natural frequencies were then used to calculate the equivalent bearings’ stiffness within the spindle by means of a calibrated dynamic stiffness method (CDSM) at various stages of spindle’s life. A comparison between the stability lobes generated for two different instances in time, in a full slotting cuts process, shows that over the life span of a spindle, the stability lobes would shift sufficiently to cause chatter after initially being stable. Therefore, as the spindle ages, the presented methodology can be exploited to predict the updated machining parameters necessary to avoid unstable chatter conditions.
Gaber, O., & Hashemi, S. M. (2015). Modal analysis of spindles while accounting for system decay and its application to machine tool chatter prevention. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 80(1), 275-292.