Air rights development (ARD) above/below public assets can achieve a number of smart growth principles while also being a land value capture tool. However, there are several complexities associated with ARD, along with bureaucratic resistance to an unfamiliar form of development. This report will explore the different ways a public entity can address these challenges and build an effective implementation structure for ARD. The research questions will explore the role of the public entity in ARD and the options available to address the associated challenges. For this exploratory research, the methodology will involve an academic literature scan, along with a jurisdictional scan of institutional literature with Boston, New York, Vancouver, and Washington D.C. as primary case studies. The report will be structured around the challenges of ARD, including political, regulatory, facilitation, and economic valuation issues. The report concludes with recommended steps in creating an implementation structure for ARD.