Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential as bio-adhesives due to their ease of application, appropriate mechanical properties, radiopacity and chemical adhesion to bone. Aluminium (Al)-free GPCs have been discussed in the literature, but have proven difficult to balance injectability with mechanical integrity. For example, zinc-based, Al-free GPCs reported compressive strengths of 63 MPa, but set in under 2 min. Here, the authors design injectable GPCs (IGPCs) based on zinc-containing, Al-free silicate compositions containing GeO2, substituted for ZnO at 3% increments through the series. The setting reactions, injectability and mechanical properties of these GPCs were evaluated using both a hand-mix (h) technique, using a spatula for sample preparation and application and an injection (i) technique, using a 16-gauge needle, post mixing, for application. GPCs ability to act as a carrier for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also evaluated. Germanium (Ge) and BSA containing IGPCs were produced and reported to have working times between 26 and 44 min and setting times between 37 and 55 min; the extended handling properties being as a result of less Ge. The incorporation of BSA into the cement had no effect on the handling and mechanical properties, but the latter were found to have increased compression strength with the addition of Ge from between 27 and 37 MPa after 30 days maturation.
Keywords: fracture fixation; distal radius fracture; germanium oxide; polyacrylic acid; injectable glass polyalkenoate cements; bovine serum albumin
Khader, B., Peel, S., & Towler, M. (2017). An Injectable Glass Polyalkenoate Cement Engineered for Fracture Fixation and Stabilization. Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 8(3), 25.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)