Canada and Germany have become major immigrant-receiving countries of the Global North, sharing settlement structures shaped by federal, regional and municipal governments and operated by large and diverse third sectors. Through an integrative literature review, this study critically examines the Canadian and German third sectors involved in settlement and social inclusion initiatives, particularly in the context of neoliberal policymaking prevalent in both countries since the 1980s. First outlining the structure and landscape of settlement in each country, it identifies several shared challenges stemming from neoliberal federal policy and the retreat of the national welfare state. Filling literature gaps in this field is particularly important given recent increases in asylum-seeking in Germany, and the global emergence of right-wing, anti-immigration political movements. The purpose of this study is to serve as the basis for further cross-national consideration, discussion and mutual learning between Canada and Germany.
Key words: Canada, Germany, third sector, settlement sector, social inclusion, asylum, immigration, neoliberal policy and restructuring