Cities play a central role in the reception of migrants and refugees and their participation in the social and political life of the arrival society. While the nation state deliberately excludes many migrants and refugees through immigration and refugee policies and various visa, permit, and status categories (Bauder, 2013), cities often react with approaches of their own which enable migrants and refugees to belong to and participate in the urban community, independent of national status. Following such approaches, an increasing number of cities in the countries of the global north declare solidarity with excluded migrants and refugees (Ridgley, 2008; Darling & Bauder, 2019).
Bauder, H. & Weisser, T. (2019). Solidarity Cities in Germany and Switzerland: A Brief Overview of Initiatives. Toronto: Ryerson Centre for Immigration and Settlement.