Optimizing Macro and Micro Base Stations Locations and User Associations in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
- Optimizing Macro and Micro Base Stations Locations and User Associations in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) have gained the attraction of the communication industry recently, due to their promising ability to enhance the performance of future broadband Fifth Generation (5G) networks and are integral parts of 5G systems. They can be viewed in multi-dimensional space where, each slice represents a unique tier that has its own Base Station (BS)s and User Equipment (UE)s. Different tiers cooperate with each other for their mutual benefit. Data can be interactively exchanged among the tiers, and UEs have the flexibility to switch between the tiers. The cells in such a heterogeneous cellular networks have variable sizes, shapes, and coverage regions.
However, in HetNets with ultra dense BSs, the distance between them gets very small and, they suffer from very high levels of mutual interference. To improve the performance of HetNets, we have done multiple contributions in this dissertation. First, we have developed analytical derivations for optimizing pilot sequence length which is a very crucial factor in acquiring the Channel State Information (CSI) and the channel estimation process in general. Poisson Point Process (PPP) has been widely used to allocate BSs among various tiers so far. However, BS locations obtained using PPP approach may not be optimum to reduce interference. Therefore, in this dissertation, BSs locations are optimized to reduce the interference and improve the coverage and received signal power. Also, we have derived expressions for static UEs coverage probability and network energy efficiency in HetNets.
A proper UE association algorithm for HetNets is a great challenge. The classic max-Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) or max-received signal strength (RSS) user association algorithms are inappropriate solutions for HetNets as UEs in this context will tend to connect to the Macro BS, which is the one with the highest signal power. A severe load imbalance and significant inefficiency arises and impacts the performance.
The aforementioned algorithms tend to associate UEs to BSs with the best received signal power or signal quality. In HetNets, usually Macro BSs are the ones transmitting the strongest signals; hence most UEs tend to associate with the Macro BS leaving Micro BSs with less load. Also, the conventional max-SINR and max-RSS algorithms do not provide adequate results in multi-tier systems. We suggest two centralized algorithms, LSTD and RTLB, for an even UE association to provide fair load distribution. However RTLB outperforms LSTD in real time scenarios as it easily and quickly adapts to rapid network changes. Furthermore, we consider the mobility of nodes. We derive coverage probability for moving UEs considering both handover and no handover scenarios. Proposed algorithms are fast enough to associate the moving users to different Micro and Macro BSs appropriately in real time. Our algorithms are proved to be feasible and provide a path towards attainable future communication systems.