Research

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  • Canada's local news "poverty"
    Canada's local news "poverty"
    Newsrooms outside the big cities are closing, and with them goes the critical information citizens require for everyday life., Lindgren, A., Corbett, J. & Hodson, J. (2017, Jan 23). Canada’s local news “poverty”. Policy Options (Online), Retrieved from http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/january-2017/canadas-local-news-poverty/
    Canada,	Libraries	and the Digital Economy
    Canada, Libraries and the Digital Economy
    What I will talk about • Digital economy strategies • Canada’s digital economy – wired broadband networks – mobile phones and broadband – extending network availability, increasing quality • Libraries as enablers of the digital economy, Canada, Libraries and the Digital Economy. Ontario Library Association Super Conference. Toronto. February 2014.
    Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders
    Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders
    Background Anxiety and related disorders are among the most common mental disorders, with lifetime prevalence reportedly as high as 31%. Unfortunately, anxiety disorders are under-diagnosed and under-treated. Methods These guidelines were developed by Canadian experts in anxiety and related disorders through a consensus process. Data on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment (psychological and pharmacological) were obtained through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and manual searches (1980–2012). Treatment strategies were rated on strength of evidence, and a clinical recommendation for each intervention was made, based on global impression of efficacy, effectiveness, and side effects, using a modified version of the periodic health examination guidelines. Results These guidelines are presented in 10 sections, including an introduction, principles of diagnosis and management, six sections (Sections 3 through 8) on the specific anxiety-related disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder), and two additional sections on special populations (children/adolescents, pregnant/lactating women, and the elderly) and clinical issues in patients with comorbid conditions. Conclusions Anxiety and related disorders are very common in clinical practice, and frequently comorbid with other psychiatric and medical conditions. Optimal management requires a good understanding of the efficacy and side effect profiles of pharmacological and psychological treatments., Katzman, M. A., Bleau, P., Blier, P., Chokka, P., Kjernisted, K., Van Ameringen, M.. . Canadian Anxiety Guidelines Initiative Group on behalf of the Anxiety Disorders Association of Canada/Association Canadienne des troubles anxieux and McGill University. (2014). Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 14 Suppl 1, S1-S1. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-S1-S1
    Cancer risks in a population-based study of 70,570 agricultural workers: results from the Canadian census health and Environment cohort (CanCHEC)
    Cancer risks in a population-based study of 70,570 agricultural workers: results from the Canadian census health and Environment cohort (CanCHEC)
    Background Agricultural workers may be exposed to potential carcinogens including pesticides, sensitizing agents and solar radiation. Previous studies indicate increased risks of hematopoietic cancers and decreased risks at other sites, possibly due to differences in lifestyle or risk behaviours. We present findings from CanCHEC (Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort), the largest national population-based cohort of agricultural workers. Methods Statistics Canada created the cohort using deterministic and probabilistic linkage of the 1991 Canadian Long Form Census to National Cancer Registry records for 1992–2010. Self-reported occupations were coded using the Standard Occupational Classification (1991) system. Analyses were restricted to employed persons aged 25–74 years at baseline (N = 2,051,315), with follow-up until December 31, 2010. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were modeled using Cox proportional hazards for all workers in agricultural occupations (n = 70,570; 70.8% male), stratified by sex, and adjusted for age at cohort entry, province of residence, and highest level of education. Results A total of 9515 incident cancer cases (7295 in males) occurred in agricultural workers. Among men, increased risks were observed for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.00–1.21), prostate (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.06–1.16), melanoma (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02–1.31), and lip cancer (HR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.70–2.70). Decreased risks in males were observed for lung, larynx, and liver cancers. Among female agricultural workers there was an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.07–1.72). Increased risks of melanoma (HR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.17–2.73), leukemia (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.24–3.25) and multiple myeloma (HR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.16–4.37) were observed in a subset of female crop farmers. Conclusions Exposure to pesticides may have contributed to increased risks of hematopoietic cancers, while increased risks of lip cancer and melanoma may be attributed to sun exposure. The array of decreased risks suggests reduced smoking and alcohol consumption in this occupational group compared to the general population., Kachuri, L., Harris, M. A., MacLeod, J. S., Tjepkema, M., Peters, P. A., & Demers, P. A. (2017). Cancer risks in a population-based study of 70,570 agricultural workers: Results from the canadian census health and environment cohort (CanCHEC). BMC Cancer, 17 doi:10.1186/s12885-017-3346-x
    Canonical Representation Of Option Prices and Greeks with Implications for Market Timing
    Canonical Representation Of Option Prices and Greeks with Implications for Market Timing
    We introduce a canonical representation of call options, and propose a solution to two open problems in option pricing theory. The first problem was posed by (Kassouf, 1969, pg. 694) seeking “theoretical substantiation” for his robust option pricing power law which eschewed assumptions about risk attitudes, rejected risk neutrality, and made no assumptions about stock price distribution. The second problem was posed by (Scott, 1987, pp. 423-424) who could not find a unique solution to the call option price in his option pricing model with stochastic volatility–without appealing to an equilibrium asset pricing model by Hull and White (1987), and concluded: “[w]e cannot determine the price of a call option without knowing the price of another call on the same stock”. First, we show that under certain conditions derivative assets are superstructures of the underlying. Hence any option pricing or derivative pricing model in a given number field, based on an anticipating variable in an extended field, with coefficients in a subfield containing the underlying, is admissible for market timing. For the anticipating variable is an algebraic number that generates the subfield in which it is the root of an equation. Accordingly, any polynomial which satisfies those criteria is admissible for price discovery and or market timing. Therefore, at least for empirical purposes, elaborate models of mathematical physics or otherwise are unnecessary for pricing derivatives because much simpler adaptive polynomials in suitable algebraic numbers are functionally equivalent. Second, we prove, analytically, that Kassouf (1969) power law specification for option pricing is functionally equivalent to Black and Scholes (1973); Merton (1973) in an algebraic number field containing the underlying. In fact, we introduce a canonical polynomial representation theory of call option pricing convex in time to maturity, and algebraic number of the underlying–with coefficients based on observables in a subfield. Thus, paving the way for Wold decomposition of option prices, and subsequently laying a theoretical foundation for a GARCH option pricing model. Third, our canonical representation theory has an inherent regenerative multifactor decomposition of call option price that (1) induces a duality theorem for call option prices, and (2) permits estimation of risk factor exposure for Greeks by standard [polynomial] regression procedures. Thereby providing a theoretical (a) basis for option pricing of Greeks, and (b) solving Scott’s dual call option problem a fortiori with our duality theory in tandem with Riesz representation theory. Fourth, when the Wold decomposition procedure is applied we are able to construct an empirical pricing kernel for call option based on residuals from a model of risk exposure to persistent and transient risk factors.
    Carbon Steel Versus Stainless Steel in the Design of Electrode Arms for UHP Electric Arc Furnaces
    Carbon Steel Versus Stainless Steel in the Design of Electrode Arms for UHP Electric Arc Furnaces
    The operating temperatures due to eddy current induced heating effects in water-cooled electrode arms of three-phase ultrahigh powered (UHP) electric arc furnaces during operation are calculated. The selection of commonly used materials (carbon steel - SAE 1010 and stainless steel - 304) is examined with regard to optimum cooling water flow and safe allowable temperature increases. Calculated results are substantiated by temperature measurements conducted on the center-phase electrode arm and its water cooling system of a recently installed furnace in the field., Online version of an article originally published as: Carbon Steel Versus Stainless Steel in the Design of Electrode Arms for UHP Electric Arc Furnaces Ryff, Peter F.; Bulat, Vladimir; Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, IA-17, Issue 2, March 1981:222 - 230 Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIA.1981.4503929
    Cardiovascular interventions for immigrant women :  a scoping review
    Cardiovascular interventions for immigrant women : a scoping review
    The purpose of this scoping review is to identify cardiovascular interventions that are designed to address the needs of immigrant women across North America and Europe. The articles retrieved were reviewed independently by both the first author and a trained research assistant. Although the search revealed many articles and resources related to supporting cardiovascular self-management behaviors among individuals, few focused on interventions designed for immigrant women who were diagnosed and living with cardiovascular disease. Also, it was difficult to determine the quality of the literature retrieved, as the main goal of this scoping review was to assess the body of literature and categorize materials by common themes and topics. A more in-depth structured systematic review is needed to determine the quality of evidence being presented and to serve as a rationale for the design and implementation of future culturally sensitive interventions delivered to immigrant women diagnosed with cardiovascular disease., Fredericks, S. & Guruge, S. (2016). Cardiovascular interventions for immigrant women: A scoping review. Clinical Nursing Research.1 (21), 1-22. DOI: 10.1177/1054773816643935.
    Care and the self: biotechnology, reproduction, and the good life
    Care and the self: biotechnology, reproduction, and the good life
    This paper explores a novel philosophy of ethical care in the face of burgeoning biomedical technologies. I respond to a serious challenge facing traditional bioethics with its roots in analytic philosophy. The hallmarks of these traditional approaches are reason and autonomy, founded on a belief in the liberal humanist subject. In recent years, however, there have been mounting challenges to this view of human subjectivity, emerging from poststructuralist critiques, such as Michel Foucault's, but increasingly also as a result of advances in biotechnology itself. In the face of these developments, I argue that the theoretical relevance and practical application of mainstream bioethics is increasingly under strain. Traditionalists will undoubtedly resist. Together, professional philosopher-bioethicists, public health policymakers, and the global commercial healthcare industry tend to respond conservatively by shoring up the liberal humanist subject as the foundation for medical ethics and consumer decision-making, appealing to the familiar tropes of reason, autonomy, and freedom. I argue for a different approach to bioethics, and work towards a new way to conceive of ethical relations in healthcare – one that does not presume a sovereign subject as the basis of dignity, personhood or democracy. Instead, I am critical of the narrow instantiations of reason, autonomy, and freedom, which, more recently, have been co-opted by a troubling neo-liberal politics of the self. Thus, I am critical of current trends in medical ethics, often running in tandem with corporate-governmental models of efficiency, accountability, and so-called evidence-based best practices. As an example of such market-driven conceptions of subjectivity, I discuss the paradigm of "self-care." Self-care shores up the traditional view of the self as a free agent. In this sense, self-care is looked upon favourably by mainstream bioethics in its focus on autonomy, while healthcare policy endorses this model for ideological and economic reasons. To contrast this, I propose a different model of care together with a different model of selfhood. Here I develop and apply Foucault's late work on the "care of the self." In this understanding of "care," I suggest that we might work towards an ethical self that is more commensurable both with recent theoretical views on subjectivity and – more pressingly – with the challenges of emergent biotechnologies. I end this paper with a discussion on ethical parenthood, which offers a practical reading of the "care of the self" in relation to new reproductive technologies (NRTs)., Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2007, 2:6. doi:10.1186/1747-5341-2-6, Murray, S. J. (2007). Care and the self: Biotechnology, reproduction, and the good life. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine : PEHM, 2(1), 6-6. doi:10.1186/1747-5341-2-6
    Caring for and Teaching Children of Refugee Parents
    Caring for and Teaching Children of Refugee Parents
    Online version of a book chapter originally published as: Caring for and Teaching Children of Refugee Parents, in Include Me too!: Human Diversity in Early Childhood. Edited by Kenise Murphy Kilbride. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada, c1997.
    Caught between a rock and a hard place: mental health of migrant live-in caregivers in Canada
    Caught between a rock and a hard place: mental health of migrant live-in caregivers in Canada
    Background Canada depends on Temporary Foreign Workers (TFWs), also known as migrant workers, to fill labour shortage in agriculture, hospitality, construction, child/senior care, and other low-skilled occupations. Evidence shows that TFWs, especially women live-in caregivers (LC), constitute a vulnerable population. Their health is compromised by the precarious and harsh working and living conditions they encounter. There is a paucity of research on the mental health of LCs, their support systems and access to mental health services. Method In this community-based exploratory study, we used mixed methods of survey and focus groups to explore the work related experiences and mental health of migrant live-in caregivers in the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. Convenience and snowball sampling were used to recruit participants. The inclusion criteria were: being 18 years or older, initially migrated to Canada as TFWs under LC program, resided in the Greater Toronto Area, and able to understand and converse in English based on self-report. This paper reports on the focus group results derived from inductive thematic analysis. Results A total of 30 women LCs participated in the study. Most of them were from the Philippines. A number of key themes emerged from the participants’ narratives: (1) precarious migration-employment status (re)produces exploitation; (2) deskilling and downward social mobility reinforce alienation; (3) endurance of hardship for family back home; (4) double lives of public cheerfulness and private anguish; and (4) unrecognized mental health needs. The study results reflected gross injustices experienced by these women. Conclusion A multi-faceted approach is required to improve the working and living conditions of this vulnerable group and ultimately their health outcomes. We recommend the following: government inspection to ensure employer compliance with the labour standards and provision of safe working and living conditions; change immigration policy to allow migrant caregivers to apply for permanent residence upon arrival; the TFWs Program to establish fair wages and subsidized housing so that caregivers can truly access the live-out option; and local ethno-specific, settlement and faith organizations be leveraged to provide TFWs with social support as well as information about their rights and how to access health and social care., Vahabi, M., & Wong, J. P. (2017). Caught between a rock and a hard place: Mental health of migrant live-in caregivers in canada. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 1-15. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4431-4
    Celiac Disease: Internet Resources
    Celiac Disease: Internet Resources
    Originally published in: Health Care on the Internet. 6(3): 23-32, 2002.
    Centralized Wage Determination and Regional Unemployment Differences: The Case of Italy
    Centralized Wage Determination and Regional Unemployment Differences: The Case of Italy
    This paper addresses the problem of the dualism of the Italian economy, particularly of its labor market. Although the Italian labor market is considered to be the most highly regulated among OECD countries, the unemployment rate in the North, which represents two thirds of the whole economy, is one of the lowest in Europe. In contrast, the South faces an unemployment rate between two to five times higher than the North. GDP per capita is also twice in the North than in the South, while nominal wages do not differ substantially across regions. Finally internal migration is the lowest among European countries since the middle seventies. This paper argues that the uniform wage is the result of the centralized wage setting carried on by unions, and that the absence of migration is the result of the proactive role of the government, which in the seventies stopped the mass internal migration from the South to the North and since then is acting to prevent the reappearance of such phenomenon. Uniform wage across regions, the active role of the government to prevent internal mass migration and a structural productivity divide between North and South are the institutional features that, within a general equilibrium matching model, explain the high unemployment rate in the South and, perhaps more interestingly, the low unemployment rate accompanied by low wages in the North even when compared to other western European countries., Also available for download here: http://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp3592.html