Research

  • 20925
  • 0
  • Characterization of the Effects of Borehole Configuration and Interference with Long Term Ground Temperature Modelling of Ground Source Heat Pumps
    Characterization of the Effects of Borehole Configuration and Interference with Long Term Ground Temperature Modelling of Ground Source Heat Pumps
    Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) are an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional heating and cooling systems because of their high efficiency and low greenhouse gas emissions. The ground acts as a heat sink/source for the excess/required heat inside a building for cooling and heating modes, respectively. However, imbalance in heating and cooling needs can change ground temperature over the operating duration. This increase/decrease in ground temperature lowers system efficiency and causes the ground to foul—failing to accept or provide more heat. In order to ensure that GSHPs can operate to their designed conditions, thermal modelling is required to simulate the ground temperature during system operation. In addition, the borehole field layout can have a major impact on ground temperature. In this study, four buildings were studied—a hospital, fast-food restaurant, residence, and school, each with varying borehole configurations. Boreholes were modeled in a soil volume using finite-element methods and heating and cooling fluxes were applied to the borehole walls to simulate the GSHP operation. 20 years of operation were modelled for each building for 2x2, 4x4, and 2x8 borehole configurations. Results indicate that the borehole separation distance of 6 m, recommended by ASHRAE, is not always sufficient to prevent borehole thermal interactions. Benefits of using a 2x8 configuration as opposed to a 4x4 configuration, which can be observed because of the larger perimeter it provides for heat to dissipate to surrounding soil were quantified. This study indicates that it is important to carefully consider ground temperature during the operation of a GSHP. Borehole separation distances, layout, and hybridization should be studied to alleviate ground fouling problems., Law, L. Y., & Dworkin, S. B. (2016). Characterization of the Effects of Borehole Configuration and Interference with Long Term Ground Temperature Modelling of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Applied Energy, 179(1), 1032-1047. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.07.048
    Characterizing the Effect of an Off-Peak Ground Pre-1 Cool Control Strategy 2 on Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump Systems
    Characterizing the Effect of an Off-Peak Ground Pre-1 Cool Control Strategy 2 on Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump Systems
    Geo-exchange systems are a sustainable alternative to conventional space conditioning systems due to their high operating efficiency, resulting in reduced energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. However, geo-exchange’s ability to penetrate the market has been throttled by large capital investments, resulting in undesirable payback periods. Optimized hybrid ground source heat pump systems (HGSHP) systems have been introduced as a remedy to overcome the current economic hurtles associated to the installation of geo-exchange systems. In both the literature, as well as in practice, there still remains potential for increased economic feasibility of this technology through integration of intelligent operational strategies. This paper presents a novel control methodology referred to as an off-peak ground pre-cool strategy, employing a time-of-use conscious operating logic which artificially pre-condition the system’s bore-field. Reducing peak power consumption is achieved by creating improved thermal characteristics during mid-peak/peak time-of-use operating brackets. A comprehensive numerical model was developed to characterize the operation of HGSHP systems for three real case studies. The mode implemented a base case set-point control scheme, used as a reference to assess the operational benefit of the proposed off-peak ground pre-cool control strategy. The preliminary analyses indicated operational cost savings of up to 16.4%, under specific pre-cool scheduling. The strategy indicated reductions in both carbon emission and peak power consumption of up t 19 15.0% and 58.5%, respectively. In all cases increasing cooling supplied by the hybrid geo 20 exchange system was indicated, with a maximum observed capacity increase of 43.7%., Alaica, A. A., & Dworkin, S. B. (n.d.). Characterizing the Effect of an Off-Peak Ground Pre-1 Cool Control Strategy ( pp. 1-43, Publication). Toronto, Ontario: Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University.
    Charity Auctions on the Internet: An Exploratory Study
    Charity Auctions on the Internet: An Exploratory Study
    The purpose of this study is to explore the value of conducting auctions on-line as a method of raising funds for charity organizations. We review the relevant literature on auctions, in both on-line and live formats and find that there remain numerous unanswered questions for charities considering this funding mechanism. In this exploratory study we collect and compare bid and selling information from eBay’s standard and charity sites and conclude, surprisingly, that the auction clearing prices for comparable items are higher on the non-charity site. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Chua, C. & Berger, I.(2006). Charity auctions on the internet: an exploratory study (Working Paper Series Volume 2006 (2)). Toronto: Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Ryerson University.
    Checking In With Google Books, HathiTrust, and the DPLA
    Checking In With Google Books, HathiTrust, and the DPLA
    Google Books and HathiTrust have been making headlines in the library world and beyond for years now, while a new player, the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA), has only recently entered the scene. This article will provide a “state of the environment” update for these digital library projects including project history and background. It will also examine some challenges common to all three projects including copyright, orphan works, metadata, and quality issues
    Child and Youth Care Practitioners Contributions to Evidence-based Practice in Group Care
    Child and Youth Care Practitioners Contributions to Evidence-based Practice in Group Care
    Project Funded by: Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health at Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO).
    Childhood and family influences on body mass index in early adulthood: findings from the Ontario Child Health Study
    Childhood and family influences on body mass index in early adulthood: findings from the Ontario Child Health Study
    Background Overweight and obesity are steadily increasing worldwide with the greatest prevalence occurring in high-income countries. Many factors influence body mass index (BMI); however multiple influences assessed in families and individuals are rarely studied together in a prospective design. Our objective was to model the impact of multiple influences at the child (low birth weight, history of maltreatment, a history of childhood mental and physical conditions, and school difficulties) and family level (parental income and education, parental mental and physical health, and family functioning) on BMI in early adulthood. Methods We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study, a prospective, population-based study of 3,294 children (ages 4–16 years) enrolled in 1983 and followed up in 2001 (N = 1,928; ages 21–35 years). Using multilevel models, we tested the association between family and child-level variables and adult BMI after controlling for sociodemographic variables and health status in early adulthood. Results At the child level, presence of psychiatric disorder and school difficulties were related to higher BMI in early adulthood. At the family level, receipt of social assistance was associated with higher BMI, whereas family functioning, having immigrant parents and higher levels of parental education were associated with lower BMI. We found that gender moderated the effect of two risk factors on BMI: receipt of social assistance and presence of a medical condition in childhood. In females, but not in males, the presence of these risk factors was associated with higher BMI in early adulthood. Conclusion Overall, these findings indicate that childhood risk factors associated with higher BMI in early adulthood are multi-faceted and long-lasting. These findings highlight the need for preventive interventions to be implemented at the family level in childhood., Gonzalez, A., Boyle, M. H., Georgiades, K., Duncan, L., Atkinson, L. R., & MacMillan, H. L. (2012). Childhood and family influences on body mass index in early adulthood: Findings from the ontario child health study. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 755-755. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-755
    Christopher J. Greig, Ontario Boys: Masculinity and the Idea of Boyhood in Postwar Ontario, 1945-1960
    Christopher J. Greig, Ontario Boys: Masculinity and the Idea of Boyhood in Postwar Ontario, 1945-1960
    Christopher J. Greig’s new book examines public discourses on boyhood in Ontario during the years following the Second World War. Greig argues that a host of journalists, child-rearing experts, and novelists (among others) used boyhood as a means of rejuvenating patriarchal structures that had been challenged by the decline of the male breadwinner ideal during the Great Depression and the increased participation of women in the workforce during the war. Indeed, if the commentators in Greig’s study are to be believed, the creation of a rugged “boy citizen” who could “promote and protect democracy” was necessary in order to stave off a serious crisis of masculinity (xix)., Reid, J. (2014, Fall). Christopher J. Greig, Ontario Boys: Masculinity and the Idea of Boyhood in Postwar Ontario, 1945-1960 [Review of Ontario Boys: Masculinity and the Idea of Boyhood in Postwar Ontario, 1945-1960 by C. J. Greig]. Historical Studies in Education / Revue D'histoire De L'education, 26(2), 159-161.
    Civic Engagement, Social Cohesion and Social Integration in Toronto,Canada
    Civic Engagement, Social Cohesion and Social Integration in Toronto,Canada
    The voluntary sector has long been seen as the foundation of a healthy civil society (DeTocqueville, 1961; Leonard & Onyx, 2003). Yet, substantial growth in the last two decades in demand for voluntary sector services in Canada has been accompanied by a significant reduction in government resources supporting the sector’s activities (Browne, 1996). This confluence of demand growth and decreased governmental support has resulted in increased competition among voluntary organizations for both capital and human resources (Meinhard & Foster, 2000). Furthermore, the ethnic transformation of Canadian society has raised knowledge, policy and practical issues across all sectors, including the voluntary sector. These conditions have pushed many in the voluntary sector to reach beyond their traditional bases of support to consider hitherto untapped segments of society, and have pushed governments to rely more and more on the voluntary sector for the development of social integration. However, research on the Canadian voluntary sector, particularly with a cross-cultural lens, is a relatively new research domain, with many gaps in the knowledge base. As a starting point, Berger (2004) and Berger & Azaria (2004) have proposed, tested and supported a framework that traces the relationship between sub-group identity and volunteering, as mediated by attitudes, norms and social barriers. In this paper we extend this framework and consider the role of civic engagement in processes of social cohesion and social integration. We use the 2002 Ethnic Diversity Survey (EDS) to investigate how engagement in the voluntary sector contributes to the development of both bonding and bridging social cohesion, and thereby, social integration. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Berger, I., Foster, M. & Meinhard, A. (2005). Civic engagement, social cohesion and social integration in Toronto, Canada (Working Paper Series Volume 2005 (4)). Toronto: Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Ryerson University.
    Civic Participation of Visible Minorities in Canadian Society: the role of nonprofit organizations in Canada’s four most diverse cities
    Civic Participation of Visible Minorities in Canadian Society: the role of nonprofit organizations in Canada’s four most diverse cities
    Newcomer engagement or participation in the nonprofit sector has been shown to be an important pillar for upholding democracy, linked to voting behaviour and political participation; the creation of social capital; and enhancement of newcomer involvement in local decision making. This paper presents results of a study that focuses on two ways in which immigrant minorities have their interests represented in community decision-making: the first through the formation of ethno-specific voluntary organizations that represent their specific interests; the second via participation as leaders, board members and volunteers in ‘mainstream’ nonprofit and public organizations. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation, Meinhard, A., Faridi, F., O'Connor, P. & Randhawa, M. (2011) Civic participation of visible minorities in Canadian society: the role of nonprofit organizations in Canada's four most diverse cities (Working Paper Series. Volume 2011 (1)). Toronto: Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Ryerson University.
    Client Volunteering in Organizations Serving Individuals with Psychiatric Disabilities
    Client Volunteering in Organizations Serving Individuals with Psychiatric Disabilities
    The impetus for this research comes from a serendipitous but intriguing observation from a recent project of the Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies (CVSS). From 2001-2004, CVSS carried out a longitudinal evaluation of the impact of a new volunteer program on the well-being and activities of individuals with psychiatric disabilities residing in a supportive housing project. While all clients self-reported that they were happy to have volunteers working with them, observed findings indicated that there were very few behavioural improvements. However, one group of resident-clients defied this finding; they demonstrated marked behavioural improvements and their satisfaction levels were higher. Intrigued, we sought answers to these observations. It turned out that these individuals were not only beneficiaries of activities led by outside volunteers; they were also volunteering within their centre, supporting or facilitating activities for other client residents. Providing opportunities for clients with psychiatric disabilities to volunteer was an innovative development at this supportive housing centre, and the results were striking. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Meinhard, A., Greenspan, I., Peterson, J., & Livingstone, P. (2007) Client volunteering in organizations serving individuals with psychiatric disabilities (Working Paper Series Volume 2007 (2)). Toronto: Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Ryerson University.
    Clinical effectiveness of individual patient education in heart surgery patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Clinical effectiveness of individual patient education in heart surgery patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Abstract The objective of this systematic review was to compare the effectiveness of individualized patient education interventions to standardized patient education interventions on the rate of readmission, performance of specific health behaviours, depression, anxiety, and cognition during the post-hospital discharge recovery period following cardiovascular surgery. Design and data sources Randomized controlled trials that included study participants who underwent their first bypass and/or valve replacement surgery; were eighteen years of age or older; and were recovering in the community. Review methods For all data analyzed, data was entered based on the principle of intention to treat. To be included in a given comparison, outcome data had to have been available for at least 80% of those who were randomized. Assessment of statistical heterogeneity was tested. Generic inverse variance methods based on random effects models were used to pool effect estimates across included studies. Results Seventeen trials involving 2624 study participants where individualized patient education was the primary interventional intent was included in this review. Four studies that included 930 participants reported on hospital readmissions. The sources of bias that remain unclear or were judged as containing high risk of bias most frequently across included trials were blinding of outcome assessment, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting. An effect of the individualized patient education in reducing hospital readmission rates (Mean Difference: −1.28, 95% CI −1.87 to −0.68, p < 0.00), depression (Mean Difference: −23.32, 95% CI −23.70 to −22.95, p < 0.00), and anxiety (Mean Difference: −19.34, 95% CI −20.46 to −18.23, p < 0.00) was noted. While an increase in the performance of specific health behaviours (Mean Difference: 3.45, 95% CI 3.27–3.63, p < 0.00) and cognition (Mean Difference: 11.17, 95% CI 10.66–11.68, p < 0.00) was found. Most effect estimates were prone to statistical heterogeneity among the trials. Conclusion The findings from this systematic review suggest favorable effects on the readmission rates. However, a major limitation notes in the current body of evidence relates to the small number of or even lacking number of trials for clinically important outcomes. As well, the individualized patient education intervention is effective in promoting statistically significant changes in quality of life, performance of health behaviours, depression, and anxiety., Fredericks, S. & Yau, T. (2017). Clinical effectiveness of individual patient education in heart surgery patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 65, 44-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.11.001
    Closing the Loop: Corporate Links to the Voluntary Sector
    Closing the Loop: Corporate Links to the Voluntary Sector
    This paper brings together findings from three separate investigations to provide a deeper understanding of the changing roles of the government, for-profit and nonprofit sectors in ensuring civil society. The first study, based on a survey of 645 nonprofit organizations from across Canada, revealed a nonprofit sector changing to meet the challenges of the times, despite a general pessimism among leaders of nonprofit organizations as to their future (Meinhard & Foster, 2003a & b). The second, based on interviews with 20 Government of Ontario officials with links to the nonprofit sector, demonstrated how civil servants struggled to help nonprofit organizations adjust to the new policies and also encouraged them to form partnerships with the for-profit sector (Meinhard & Foster, 2003c). The research reported in this paper, based on interviews with 17 senior officers of Ontario-based corporations active in philanthropy, focuses on the corporations and probes more deeply in to the myriad of ways they are getting involved in their communities as socially responsible corporate citizens.The findings from the corporate interviews are compared and melded with those from previous interviews with government officials and nonprofit organizations to provide a three-dimensional perspective of the direction in which Canadian civil society may be moving. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Meinhard, A., Foster, M. & Berger, I. (2005). Closing the loop: corporate links to the voluntary sector (Working Paper Series Volume 2005 (3)). Toronto: Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Ryerson University.