Research

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  • CoFlame: A refined and validated numerical algorithm for modeling sooting laminar coflow diffusion flames
    CoFlame: A refined and validated numerical algorithm for modeling sooting laminar coflow diffusion flames
    Mitigation of soot emissions from combustion devices is a global concern. For example, recent EURO 6 regulations for vehicles have placed stringent limits on soot emissions. In order to allow design engineers to achieve the goal of reduced soot emissions, they must have the tools to so. Due to the complex nature of soot formation, which includes growth and oxidation, detailed numerical models are required to gain fundamental insights into the mechanisms of soot formation. A detailed description of the CoFlame FORTRAN code which models sooting laminar coflow diffusion flames is given. The code solves axial and radial velocity, temperature, species conservation, and soot aggregate and primary particle number density equations. The sectional particle dynamics model includes nucleation, PAH condensation and HACA surface growth, surface oxidation, coagulation, fragmentation, particle diffusion, and thermophoresis. The code utilizes a distributed memory parallelization scheme with strip-domain decomposition. The public release of the CoFlame code, which has been refined in terms of coding structure, to the research community accompanies this paper. CoFlame is validated against experimental data for reattachment length in an axi-symmetric pipe with a sudden expansion, and ethylene–air and methane–air diffusion flames for multiple soot morphological parameters and gas-phase species. Finally, the parallel performance and computational costs of the code is investigated., Eaves, N. A., Zhang, Q., Liu, F., Guo, H., Dworkin, S. B., & Thomson, M. J. (2016). CoFlame: A refined and validated numerical algorithm for modeling sooting laminar coflow diffusion flames. Computer Physics Communications, 207, 464-477. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2016.06.016
    Coaching in the cardiovascular surgical population.
    Coaching in the cardiovascular surgical population.
    BACKGROUND: More than one quarter of all cardiovascular surgical patients are re-admitted to hospitals with postoperative complications experienced during the first three months of recovery. AIM AND METHOD: The purpose of this discursive paper is to review the literature pertaining to a self-management coaching intervention that is currently being evaluated using a randomized controlled clinical trial. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: A discussion of how to integrate coaching into clinical practice is presented. The use of coaching in the clinical setting has implications for nurses in that it can be used to assess behaviours, knowledge, and learning needs; provide individualized education that is reflective of a patient's identified learning needs; collaborate with patients in setting goals; identify barriers and engage in problem-solving to overcome barriers; and create a specific plan for follow-up., Fredericks, S. (2011). Coaching in the cardiovascular surgical population. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 21, 3, 30-33.
    Cognitive Spectrum Sensing with Multiple Primary Users in Rayleigh Fading Channels
    Cognitive Spectrum Sensing with Multiple Primary Users in Rayleigh Fading Channels
    Accurate detection of white spaces is crucial in cognitive radio networks. Initial investigations show that the accurate detection in a multiple primary users environment is challenging, especially under severe multipath conditions. Among many techniques, recently proposed eigenvalue-based detectors that use random matrix theories to eliminate the need of prior knowledge of the signals proved to be a solid approach. In this work, we study the effect of Rayleigh multipath fading channels on spectrum sensing in a multiple primary user environment for a pre-proposed detector called the spherical detector using the eigenvalue approach. Simulation results show interesting outcomes., Al-Juboori, S., Hussain, S. J., & Fernando, X. (2014). Cognitive spectrum sensing with multiple primary users in rayleigh fading channels. Electronics (Basel), 3(3), 553-563. doi:10.3390/electronics3030553, (This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Radio: Use the Spectrum in a More Efficient Way)
    Cognitive mapping links human factors to corporate strategies
    Cognitive mapping links human factors to corporate strategies
    Human factors (HF) can improve business performance. Our objective is to harness individual tacit knowledge from senior directors about human factors as it relates to strategic goals and to make explicit their shared managerial thinking with an aim to identifying improvement opportunities using HF. Individual cognitive maps were drawn during one-hour interviews with seven senior directors of a large electronics firm. The maps were then merged on a common strategic goal of 'improving quality' into a group map containing 221 concepts and 900 loops. In a two hour workshop with the directors, reducing fatigue, improving systems design, and reducing repetitive activities were concepts that emerged as critical-to-quality. Workshop discussions identified untapped improvement opportunities.Directors viewed the maps as a dynamic indicator of their HF performance. Making the connection between HF and strategic goals explicit can help an organisation identify opportunities to improve human, and therefore business, performance., Village, J., Salustri, F. A., & Neumann, W. P. (2016). Cognitive mapping links human factors to corporate strategies. European Journal of Industrial Engineering, 10(1), 1-20.
    Collaboration between Librarians and Teaching Faculty to Teach Information Literacy at One Ontario University: Experiences and Outcomes
    Collaboration between Librarians and Teaching Faculty to Teach Information Literacy at One Ontario University: Experiences and Outcomes
    Purpose: In this study, we sought to describe information literacy success outcomes for students who participated in a university course where university librarians and teaching faculty collaborated in all aspects of the course including; curricular development, assignment development, in-class teaching, office hours for individual student development, and assessment activities. The authors wanted to examine student success in attaining information literacy skills following this one semester course. Further, the authors wanted to determine what difficulties in achieving expected information literacy levels persist even after intensive collaborative instruction. Finally, the authors wished to describe the challenges of these collaborations. Methodology: The focus of this study was to determine changes in first-year university students’ information literacy knowledge and skill following a thirteen week university preparation course that was developed through strong collaboration between university librarians and teaching faculty. Students entering their first semester of university were tested on their information literacy skills without feedback. They then took part in the required course and were post tested in the last week of the semester. Findings: Student showed strong increases in information literacy from this collaborative approach. In addition, teaching faculty and librarians felt positive about the collaborative experience. However, some students showed misunderstandings about information literacy that requires further research. Originality and Practical Implications: Our unique contribution here is our description, experiences and detailed outcomes with a collaborative process to teach information literacy. Based on our experiences here, we believe that collaboration will work best if it is planned at a curricular level, if the librarians are truly integrated into the classroom, if the librarians provide input on assignments and help with student feedback, and if targeted information literacy knowledge is tested. This planning takes time, but the librarians offer unique contributions and insight into issues surrounding information literacy that may not be obvious to faculty instructors. In our study, we also found that students confuse assignment requirements with general information literacy standards and those teaching information literacy need to be aware of these confusions. Finally, integration of librarians into college/university courses has benefits in terms of increases in student information literacy and increases in librarian knowledge of faculty expectations., Originally published as: Reed, M., Kinder, D., & Farnum, C. (2007). Collaboration between librarians and teaching faculty to teach information literacy at One Ontario University: Experiences and outcomes. Journal of Information Literacy, 1(3), 29-46.
    Colloidal Gold-Mediated Delivery of Bleomycin for Improved Outcome in Chemotherapy
    Colloidal Gold-Mediated Delivery of Bleomycin for Improved Outcome in Chemotherapy
    Nanoparticles (NPs) can be used to overcome the side effects of poor distribution of anticancer drugs. Among other NPs, colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNPs) offer the possibility of transporting major quantities of drugs due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. This is while confining these anticancer drugs as closely as possible to their biological targets through passive and active targeting, thus ensuring limited harmful systemic distribution. In this study, we chose to use bleomycin (BLM) as the anticancer drug due to its limited therapeutic efficiency (harmful side effects). BLM was conjugated onto GNPs through a thiol bond. The effectiveness of the chemotherapeutic drug, BLM, is observed by visualizing DNA double strand breaks and by calculating the survival fraction. The action of the drug (where the drug takes effect) is known to be in the nucleus, and our experiments have shown that some of the GNPs carrying BLM were present in the nucleus. The use of GNPs to deliver BLM increased the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Having a better control over delivery of anticancer drugs using GNPs will establish a more successful NP-based platform for a combined therapeutic approach. This is due to the fact that GNPs can also be used as radiation dose enhancers in cancer research., Yang, C., Uertz, J., & Chithrani, D. (2016). Colloidal gold-mediated delivery of bleomycin for improved outcome in chemotherapy. Nanomaterials, 6(3), 48. doi:10.3390/nano6030048, (This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Colloidal Nanocrystals)
    Colony size measurement of the yeast gene deletion strains for functional genomics
    Colony size measurement of the yeast gene deletion strains for functional genomics
    Background Numerous functional genomics approaches have been developed to study the model organism yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the aim of systematically understanding the biology of the cell. Some of these techniques are based on yeast growth differences under different conditions, such as those generated by gene mutations, chemicals or both. Manual inspection of the yeast colonies that are grown under different conditions is often used as a method to detect such growth differences. Results Here, we developed a computerized image analysis system called Growth Detector (GD), to automatically acquire quantitative and comparative information for yeast colony growth. GD offers great convenience and accuracy over the currently used manual growth measurement method. It distinguishes true yeast colonies in a digital image and provides an accurate coordinate oriented map of the colony areas. Some post-processing calculations are also conducted. Using GD, we successfully detected a genetic linkage between the molecular activity of the plant-derived antifungal compound berberine and gene expression components, among other cellular processes. A novel association for the yeast mek1 gene with DNA damage repair was also identified by GD and confirmed by a plasmid repair assay. The results demonstrate the usefulness of GD for yeast functional genomics research. Conclusion GD offers significant improvement over the manual inspection method to detect relative yeast colony size differences. The speed and accuracy associated with GD makes it an ideal choice for large-scale functional genomics investigations., Originally published as: Memarian, N., Jessulat, M., Alirezaie, J., Mir-Rashed, N., Xu, J., Zareie, M., Smith, M., & Golshani, A. (2007). Colony size measurement of the yeast gene deletion strains for functional genomics. BMC Bioinformatics, 8, 117.
    Color star tracking II: matching
    Color star tracking II: matching
    A novel matching algorithm is presented that can identify stars using raw images of the sky obtained from a CMOS color filter array detector. The algorithm combines geometric information with amplitude ratios calculated from the red, green, and blue color color channels. Conventional algorithms that match stars based solely on inter-star geometry (and sometimes relative brightness), typically require three or more stars for a confident star match. In contrast, the presented algorithms are able to find matches with only two imaged stars in most regions of the sky. The necessary catalog preparation and a simple star-pair matching algorithm based on combined color intensity ratios and the angular spacing are discussed. Results from a large set of simulation trials and initial results from sensor field testing are presented., Enright, J. & McVittie, G. (2013). Color star tracking II: matching. Optical Engineering, 52(1), 014406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.oe.52.1.014406
    Combined building integrated photovoltaic-thermal collector with air source heat pump for cold climate
    Combined building integrated photovoltaic-thermal collector with air source heat pump for cold climate
    A TRNSYS model was developed to conduct a comprehensive study of combining a building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPV/T) collector with an air source heat pump (ASHP) in an Archetype Sustainable House. The heat pump uses the warm air generated in the BIPV/T as the source for heat production. The coupling of BIPV/T and ASHP enables a highly efficient heating system in winter conditions. A numerical model was developed for an air-based PV/T collector. The model was used to predict the thermal and electrical performance of the collector and to conduct a comprehensive analysis for different configurations (number of PV/T panels in rows NR and in series NS) and different design parameters. TRNSYS simulation results showed that low air mass flow rate and low duct depth enhance the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP). The arrangement with a large number of PV/T systems connected in series has higher COP. The maximum obtained seasonal heating COP was 3.45, corresponding to duct depth of 1.5 in, NS=5 and low row mass flow rate of 0.03 kg/s. The heat pump cumulative electricity consumption for a typical heating season could be reduced by 20.2%. When the analysis was based only on sunny hours, the electricity consumption of the combined ASHP + PV/T system was reduced by 52% and the predicted seasonal COP of the heat pump was 5.98. A new full-scale test facility was presented to be implemented at Toronto and Region Conservation Authority to examine the performance of combining passive system and dynamic building envelope technologies (BIPV/T+ASHP+TES) under real weather conditions. It is important to match the maximum airflow for the BIPV/T system with the maximum airflow for the outdoor coil of the heat pump. The pressure drop inside the PV/T collector along with the connecting air duct from the BIPV/T to ASHP for a wide range of airflow rates and different duct depths was calculated. It was found that for air a flow rate around 2000 CFM, which is the maximum CFM for the custom-made ASHP for the test facility, the predicted fan energy was 195 kWh/year corresponding to 1.5 in. duct depth.
    Combining hierarchical task analysis and usage scenarios to help embed human factors in design
    Combining hierarchical task analysis and usage scenarios to help embed human factors in design
    The introductory design course in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at Ryerson University combines Human Factors (HF) and Design. Due to its unique character, we have developed custom courseware. In recent years the instructors have noticed four specific shortcomings in students’ abilities to incorporate HF into their designs. We are developing new courseware that focuses on embedding HF considerations into the requirements specification stage. The courseware incorporates a novel combination of Hierarchical Task Analysis (a well-known method) with Usage Scenarios (a method of Salustri’s invention, based on the work of Stone and Wood). We further alter the courseware in several other ways to minimize the amount of documentation that students need to provide, while still capturing their decision-making process well enough to allow appropriate assessments. A plan for implementing and assessing the proposed work is also presented. Keywords: engineering design, human factors, hierarchical task analysis, courseware, user experience, Salustri, F. A., & Neumann, W. P. (2018). Combining hierarchical task analysis and usage scenarios to help embed human factors in design in Proc. 2018 Canadian Engineering Education Association (CEEA-ACEG18) Conf; Paper 081 University of British Columbia; June 3-6, 2018.