Research

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  • The effect of tailored Web-based interventions on pain in adults: a systematic review protocol
    The effect of tailored Web-based interventions on pain in adults: a systematic review protocol
    Background Information technologies can facilitate the implementation of health interventions, especially in the case of widespread conditions such as pain. Tailored Web-based interventions have been recognized for health behavior change among diverse populations. However, none of the systematic reviews looking at Web-based interventions for pain management has specifically addressed the contribution of tailoring. Methods The aims of this systematic review are to assess the effect of tailored Web-based pain management interventions on pain intensity and physical and psychological functions. Randomized controlled trials including adults suffering from any type of pain and involving Web-based interventions for pain management, using at least one of the three tailoring strategies (personalization, feedback, or adaptation), will be considered. The following types of comparisons will be carried out: tailored Web-based intervention with (1) usual care (passive control group), (2) face-to-face intervention, and (3) standardized Web-based intervention. The primary outcome will be pain intensity measured using a self-report measure such as the numeric rating scale (e.g., 0–10) or visual analog scale (e.g., 0–100). Secondary outcomes will include pain interference with activities and psychological well-being. A systematic review of English and French articles using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library will be conducted from January 2000 to December 2015. Eligibility assessment will be performed independently in an unblinded standardized manner by two reviewers. Extracted data will include the following: sample size, demographics, dropout rate, number and type of study groups, type of pain, inclusion and exclusion criteria, study setting, type of Web-based intervention, tailoring strategy, comparator, type of pain intensity measure, pain-related disability and psychological well-being outcomes, and times of measurement. Disagreements between reviewers at the full-text level will be resolved by consulting a third reviewer, a senior researcher. Discussion This systematic review is the first one looking at the specific ingredients and effects of tailored and Web-based interventions for pain management. Results of this systematic review could contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which Web-based interventions could be helpful for people facing pain problems., Martorella, G., Gélinas, C., Bérubé, M., Boitor, M., Fredericks, S., & LeMay, S. (2016). The effect of tailored web-based interventions on pain in adults: A systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews, 5(1), 59.
    The effectiveness of food safety & workplace interventions for food handlers
    The effectiveness of food safety & workplace interventions for food handlers
    Researchers conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of training and education interventions to improve food safety in restaurants and food service settings. Infographic of Young, I., Greig, J., Wilhelm, B.J., & Waddell, L.A. (2019). Effectiveness of food handler training and education interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Food Protection 82(10), 1714–1728., Lum, C. and Young, I. (2020). The effectiveness of food safety & workplace interventions for food handlers. [Infographic]
    The effectiveness of knowledge translation interventions for promoting evidence-informed decision-making among nurses in tertiary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    The effectiveness of knowledge translation interventions for promoting evidence-informed decision-making among nurses in tertiary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Nurses are increasingly expected to engage in evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) to improve client and system outcomes. Despite an improved awareness about EIDM, there is a lack of use of research evidence and understanding about the effectiveness of interventions to promote EIDM. This project aimed to discover if knowledge translation (KT) interventions directed to nurses in tertiary care are effective for improving EIDM knowledge, skills, behaviours, and, as a result, client outcomes. It also sought to understand contextual factors that affect the impact of such interventions. Methods A systematic review funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (PROSPERO registration: CRD42013003319) was conducted. Included studies examined the implementation of any KT intervention involving nurses in tertiary care to promote EIDM knowledge, skills, behaviours, and client outcomes or studies that examined contextual factors. Study designs included systematic reviews, quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method studies. The search included electronic databases and manual searching of published and unpublished literature to November 2012; key databases included MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Excerpta Medica (EMBASE). Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction. Studies with quantitative data determined to be clinically homogeneous were synthesized using meta-analytic methods. Studies with quantitative data not appropriate for meta-analysis were synthesized narratively by outcome. Studies with qualitative data were synthesized by theme. Results Of the 44,648 citations screened, 30 citations met the inclusion criteria (18 quantitative, 10 qualitative, and 2 mixed methods studies). The quality of studies with quantitative data ranged from very low to high, and quality criteria was generally met for studies with qualitative data. No studies evaluated the impact on knowledge and skills; they primarily investigated the effectiveness of multifaceted KT strategies for promoting EIDM behaviours and improving client outcomes. Almost all studies included an educational component. A meta-analysis of two studies determined that a multifaceted intervention (educational meetings and use of a mentor) did not increase engagement in a range of EIDM behaviours [mean difference 2.7, 95 % CI (−1.7 to 7.1), I 2 = 0 %]. Among the remaining studies, no definitive conclusions could be made about the relative effectiveness of the KT interventions due to variation of interventions and outcomes, as well as study limitations. Findings from studies with qualitative data identified the organizational, individual, and interpersonal factors, as well as characteristics of the innovation, that influence the success of implementation. Conclusions KT interventions are being implemented and evaluated on nurses’ behaviour and client outcomes. This systematic review may inform the selection of KT interventions and outcomes among nurses in tertiary care and decisions about further research., Yost, J., Ganann, R., Thompson, D., Aloweni, F., Newman, K., Hazzan, A., . . . Ciliska, D. (2015). The effectiveness of knowledge translation interventions for promoting evidence-informed decision-making among nurses in tertiary care: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Implementation Science : IS, 10, 98.
    The effects of Mitogenic and Metabolic cues on clathrin-mediated endocytosis
    The effects of Mitogenic and Metabolic cues on clathrin-mediated endocytosis
    The cell ‘surfaceome’ collectively describes proteins found on the plasma membrane (PM), which functions in fundamental cellular processes including growth and proliferation. The surfaceome undergoes dynamic remodeling via the addition/removal of surface proteins in response to changing environmental conditions. In mammalian cells, surfaceome remodeling is predominantly facilitated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) which involves the invagination and internalization of PM regions via clathrin-coated structures—removing proteins from the cell surface. As a major regulator of the surfaceome, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms governing CME, given that its dysregulation has been implicated in human pathologies including neurologic and oncogenic disorders. Cellular cues including mitogenic (e.g. growth factors) and metabolic signals (e.g. cellular energy levels) induce diverse cellular processes (e.g. growth and proliferation) requiring surfaceome/PM remodeling. Precisely how mitogenic and metabolic signals may induce surfaceome remodeling however, is under-examined. As a major regulator of the surfaceome, CME is a likely mechanism through which cellular cues may remodel the PM. Poorly understood, I thus sought to investigate how mitogenic and metabolic signals may regulate CME. Mitogenic signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) triggers PLCγ1-calcium signals, which I found a requirement for CME of EGFR—likely via calcium control of the Sjn1 protein. Consistently, using TIRF-M imaging coupled to automated software analysis, I demonstrate that inhibition of PLCγ1-calcium signals impairs the formation/assembly of GFR-containing clathrin structures. In addition, I hypothesize that PLCγ1-calcium signals also regulates the CME of other surface proteins given its robust control of Sjn1—which localizes broadly amongst clathrin-coated structures. AMPK is a cellular energy sensor activated by metabolic stress (e.g. starvation). Using TIRF-M imaging coupled to automated software analysis, I found that AMPK activation broadly reduces the formation/assembly of bona fide clathrin-coated pits, without impairing the internalization rates of CME cargoes (e.g. EGFR, TfR and β1-integrin). Furthermore, I found that AMPK may regulate CME throughcontrol of the Arf6 protein. Collectively, my findings uncover and provide novel mechanisms by which mitogenic (via EGFR-induced calcium signals) and metabolic signals (via AMPK control of Arf6) may induce regulation of CME—in eliciting global reorganization of the plasma membrane. 1,2,11–13,3–10
    The evolving relationship between government and the voluntary sector in Ontario
    The evolving relationship between government and the voluntary sector in Ontario
    [First paragraph of Introduction]: In this paper, we investigate the evolving relationship between government and voluntary organizations in Ontario that is occurring in the wake of a prolonged period of funding cuts. The cuts are a manifestation of a major philosophical shift in government-third sector relations. We have already examined the impact of this shift on voluntary organizations in several papers (Foster and Meinhard, 2002; Meinhard and Foster, 2003a & b). We now turn our attention to the government sector and its vision for the future. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Meinhard, A. G., Foster, M., Berger, I., and Moher, L. (2003). The Evolving Relationship Between Government and the Voluntary Sector in Ontario. (Working Paper Series Volume 2003(2)). Toronto : Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Volunteer Sector Studies, Ryerson University.
    The freedom to explore: examining the influence of independent mobility on weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity behaviour in children living in urban and inner-suburban neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status
    The freedom to explore: examining the influence of independent mobility on weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity behaviour in children living in urban and inner-suburban neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status
    Background Children’s independent mobility (CIM) is critical to healthy development in childhood. The physical layout and social characteristics of neighbourhoods can impact opportunities for CIM. While global evidence is mounting on CIM, to the authors’ knowledge, Canadian data on CIM and related health outcomes (i.e., physical activity (PA) behaviour) are missing. The purpose of this study was to examine if CIM is related to multiple characteristics of accelerometry-measured PA behaviour (total PA, light PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA, time spent sedentary) and whether associations between CIM and PA behaviour systematically vary by place of residence, stratifying by gender and type of day/period (weekdays, after-school, weekend). Methods Participants were recruited through Project BEAT (Built Environment and Active Transport; http://www.beat.utoronto.ca). Children (n = 856) were stratified into four neighbourhood classifications based on the period of neighbourhood development (urban built environment (BE) (old BE) versus inner-suburban BE (new BE)) and socioeconomic status (SES; low SES and high SES). Physical activity was measured via accelerometry (ActiGraph GT1M). CIM was assessed via parental report and two categories were created (low CIM, n = 332; high CIM, n = 524). A series of two-factor ANOVAs were used to determine gender-specific differences in PA for weekdays, weekend days and the after-school period, according to level of CIM, across four neighbourhood classifications. Results Children who were granted at least some independent mobility (high CIM) had more positive PA profiles across the school week, during the after-school period, and over the weekend; they were also less sedentary. The influence of CIM on PA behaviour was particularly salient during the after-school period. Associations of CIM with PA varied by gender, and also by neighbourhood classification. CIM seemed to matter more in urban neighbourhoods for boys and suburban neighbourhoods for girls. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of independent mobility to multiple characteristics of children’s PA behaviour across the week. Furthermore, they emphasize that independent mobility-activity relationships need to be considered by gender and the type of neighbourhood independent mobility is offered in. Future work will focus on developing a predictive model of CIM that could be used to inform decision-making around alleviating barriers to CIM., Stone, M. R., Faulkner, G. E., Mitra, R., & Buliung, R. N. (2014). The freedom to explore: Examining the influence of independent mobility on weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity behaviour in children living in urban and inner-suburban neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11, 5. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-5
    The impact of cognitive restructuring and self-compassion strategies on negative body image among women with higher body weight: an experimental investigation
    The impact of cognitive restructuring and self-compassion strategies on negative body image among women with higher body weight: an experimental investigation
    Individuals with higher body weight are at a greater risk of having negative body image (Friedman & Brownell, 1995). Yet current body image interventions, such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), are largely tested with individuals with normal weight or individuals with eating disorders. Furthermore, cognitive restructuring, one of the key components of CBT for body image (Alleva et al., 2015), relies on the assumption that negative cognitions or appraisals regarding the body are unbalanced or distorted in some way. However, people with higher body weight are 50% more likely to experience major discrimination based on their weight status and thus may possess some “evidence” from lived experience of weight bias that would lend support to their negative body-related thoughts (Puhl & Brownell, 2001; 2006). The use of compassion-focused approaches might be particularly helpful in overcoming these obstacles. Self-compassion refers to the capacity for mindfully reflecting on one’s own perceived flaws, mistakes, or wrongdoings with kindness and with an appreciation for the inherent imperfection in everyone (Neff, 2013). The present study tested the impact of various thinking strategies for managing negative body image in women with higher body weight after getting on the scale, a commonly distressing body image trigger (Ogden & Evans, 1996). Participants (N = 79) were recruited from the community and screened for moderate body dissatisfaction. They were randomly assigned to receive a single training session in cognitive restructuring (CR), self-compassion (SC), or distraction (Control) strategies after being weighed. Participants in all three of the groups reported improvements in body dissatisfaction and negative affect immediately following the training. Relative to those in the Control group, those participants who received training in CR or SC strategies reported greater improvements in body image, body image flexibility, self-compassion, and cognitive distortions one week after the training. These findings suggest that CR and SC strategies may be helpful in improving the distress associated with being weighed among women with higher body weight. The results may have broader implications for the development of psychosocial interventions focused on improving body image among these individuals.
    The impact of facilities and service-based competition on Internet services provision in the Canadian Broadband Market
    The impact of facilities and service-based competition on Internet services provision in the Canadian Broadband Market
    A variety of studies have focused on the effect of competition in broadband markets on increasing broadband penetration rates. Few studies however have focused on the extent to which competition also results in innovation in the marketplace, as demonstrated by increased broadband speeds, and other improvements that provide value to broadband users. This paper considers the effectiveness of market competition as a means of encouraging broadband providers to offer innovative services that meet citizens’ increasing needs for affordable high quality and high speed broadband connectivity. The study focuses on the provision of broadband services in Canada, a country where consumers were early adopters of broadband and where the policy environment has encouraged competition in the broadband market from its inception. Drawing on data from the OECD and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), the paper demonstrates that Canada’s regulatory regime does not appear to be sufficient to enable a competitive marketplace that results in the provision of innovative broadband services., van Gorp, A., & Middleton, C.(2010). The Impact of Facilities and Service-Based Competition on Internet Services Provision in the Canadian Broadband Market. Telematics and Informatics, 27(3), 217-230. doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2009.12.001
    The impact of volunteer community service programs on students in Toronto's secondary schools
    The impact of volunteer community service programs on students in Toronto's secondary schools
    [First paragraph of introduction]: One of the many challenges facing the nonprofit sector in Canada today is developing public awareness of the important role voluntary organizations play in the everyday lives of Canadians. Ranging from food banks, children’s aid societies, and immigrant service organizations, to opera companies and sporting societies, nonprofit and voluntary organizations offer a startlingly wide array of services which cannot be adequately provided directly through the open marketplace or the state. There are approximately 200,000 nonprofit organizations, 75,000 of which are registered charities. They account for 12% of the country’s GDP employing 5% of the national labour force and comprising nearly 10% of service sector employment (Stewart, 1996). In the past five years this sector accounted for 13% of job growth in Canada (Hall, 1996). The value of donated labour output was 13 billion dollars (Day and Devlin, 1996), representing an estimated half a million full time, full year jobs (Duchesne, 1989). Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Meinhard, A. G. & Foster, M. K. (1999). The Impact of Volunteer Community Service Programs on Students in Toronto’s Secondary Schools. (Working paper Volume 1999 (1)). Toronto : Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Volunteer Sector Studies, Ryerson University.
    The influence of country of origin on engagement in self-care behaviours following heart surgery: A descriptive correlational study.
    The influence of country of origin on engagement in self-care behaviours following heart surgery: A descriptive correlational study.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine if an individual’s country of origin influenced performance of self-care behaviours after heart surgery. Background: Patients are required to perform self-care behaviours following cardiovascular surgery. Usual care encompasses a patient education initiative that addresses self-care behaviour performance. Within Canada, current heart surgery patient education efforts have been designed and evaluated using homogenous samples that self-identify their country of origin as England, Ireland, or Scotland. However, approximately, 42.6% of Canadian cardiovascular surgical patients self-identify their country of origin as India or China. Thus, current cardiovascular surgery patient education initiatives may not be applicable to all patients undergoing heart surgery, which may result in decreased patient outcomes such as performance of self-care behaviours. Design and methods: This descriptive study included a convenience sample of ninety patients who underwent heart surgery at one of two university affiliated teaching hospitals, representing individuals of diverse backgrounds. Point-biserial correlational analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between country of origin and performance of self-care behaviours. Results and conclusion: Findings indicate individuals who self identified their country of origin as England or Ireland were associated with a higher score on the number of self-care behaviours performed (p < .05) than individuals who self-identified other countries of origin. Self-care behaviours were taught using patient education materials that were designed based on feedback obtained from individuals whose country of origin was England or Ireland. Thus, this study provides preliminary evidence to suggest country of origin influences the amount of self-care behaviours individuals will perform. Relevance to clinical practice: Patient education initiatives should incorporate the values, beliefs, attitudes, and customs reflective of an individual’s country of origin to enhance the likelihood of producing desired outcomes., Fredericks, S. (online, 2012). The influence of country of origin on engagement in self-care behaviours following heart surgery: A descriptive correlational study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21, 2202-2208. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04095.x
    The library as congenial space: the Saint Mary’s experience
    The library as congenial space: the Saint Mary’s experience
    Online version of an article originally published as: Madeleine Lefebvre, (2002) "The library as congenial space: the Saint Mary’s experience", New Library World, Vol. 103 Iss: 1/2, pp.21 - 29. Publisher URL: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/03074800210415032