Research

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  • Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages
    Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages
    Background Antimicrobial resistance is increasing among clinical Campylobacter cases and is common among isolates from other sources, specifically retail poultry - a major source of human infection. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from a UK-wide survey of Campylobacter in retail poultry in 2001 and 2004–5 was investigated. The occurrence of phenotypes resistant to tetracycline, quinolones (ciprofloxacin and naladixic acid), erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides was quantified. This was compared with a phylogeny for these isolates based upon Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance acquisition. Results Antimicrobial resistance was present in all lineage clusters, but statistical testing showed a non-random distribution. Erythromycin resistance was associated with Campylobacter coli. For all antimicrobials tested, resistant isolates were distributed among relatively distant lineages indicative of widespread acquisition. There was also evidence of clustering of resistance phenotypes within lineages; indicative of local expansion of resistant strains. Conclusions These results are consistent with the widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among chicken associated Campylobacter isolates, either through mutation or horizontal gene transfer, and the expansion of these lineages as a proportion of the population. As Campylobacter are not known to multiply outside of the host and long-term carriage in humans is extremely infrequent in industrialized countries, the most likely location for the proliferation of resistant lineages is in farmed chickens., Wimalarathna, H. M. L., Richardson, J. F., Lawson, A. J., Elson, R., Meldrum, R., Little, C. L.. . Sheppard, S. K. (2013). Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages. BMC Microbiology, 13(1), 160-160. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-13-160
    Will Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Will Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Background There is evidence to suggest that delivery of diabetes self-management support by diabetes educators in primary care may improve patient care processes and patient clinical outcomes; however, the evaluation of such a model in primary care is nonexistent in Canada. This article describes the design for the evaluation of the implementation of Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care settings in Canada. Methods/design This study will use a non-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial stepped wedge design to evaluate the Mobile Diabetes Education Teams' intervention in improving patient clinical and care process outcomes. A total of 1,200 patient charts at participating primary care sites will be reviewed for data extraction. Eligible patients will be those aged ≥18, who have type 2 diabetes and a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of ≥8%. Clusters (that is, primary care sites) will be randomized to the intervention and control group using a block randomization procedure within practice size as the blocking factor. A stepped wedge design will be used to sequentially roll out the intervention so that all clusters eventually receive the intervention. The time at which each cluster begins the intervention is randomized to one of the four roll out periods (0, 6, 12, and 18 months). Clusters that are randomized into the intervention later will act as the control for those receiving the intervention earlier. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the proportion of patients who achieve the recommended HbA1c target of ≤7% between intervention and control groups. Qualitative work (in-depth interviews with primary care physicians, MDET educators and patients; and MDET educators’ field notes and debriefing sessions) will be undertaken to assess the implementation process and effectiveness of the MDET intervention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553266, Gucciardi, E., Fortugno, M., Horodezny, S., Lou, W., Sidani, S., Espin, S., Shah, B. R. (2012). Will mobile diabetes education teams (MDETs) in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 13(1), 165-165. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-165
    Will Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Will Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care improve patient care processes and health outcomes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    BackgroundThere is evidence to suggest that delivery of diabetes self-management support by diabetes educators in primary care may improve patient care processes and patient clinical outcomes; however, the evaluation of such a model in primary care is nonexistent in Canada. This article describes the design for the evaluation of the implementation of Mobile Diabetes Education Teams (MDETs) in primary care settings in Canada. Methods/designThis study will use a non-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial stepped wedge design to evaluate the Mobile Diabetes Education Teams' intervention in improving patient clinical and care process outcomes. A total of 1,200 patient charts at participating primary care sites will be reviewed for data extraction. Eligible patients will be those aged ≥18, who have type 2 diabetes and a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of ≥8%. Clusters (that is, primary care sites) will be randomized to the intervention and control group using a block randomization procedure within practice size as the blocking factor. A stepped wedge design will be used to sequentially roll out the intervention so that all clusters eventually receive the intervention. The time at which each cluster begins the intervention is randomized to one of the four roll out periods (0, 6, 12, and 18 months). Clusters that are randomized into the intervention later will act as the control for those receiving the intervention earlier. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the proportion of patients who achieve the recommended HbA1c target of ≤7% between intervention and control groups. Qualitative work (in-depth interviews with primary care physicians, MDET educators and patients; and MDET educators’ field notes and debriefing sessions) will be undertaken to assess the implementation process and effectiveness of the MDET intervention. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553266 Keywords:Diabetes; Self-management education; Diabetes self-management support; Primary care; Cluster randomized controlled trial; Stepped wedge design; Inter-professional collaboration; Chronic disease models, Trials 2012, 13:165 doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-165 http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/13/1/165
    William L. Rowe’s A Priori Argument for Atheism
    William L. Rowe’s A Priori Argument for Atheism
    This paper appears in Faith and Philosophy 22 (2005): 211-234. The published version can be found online at : http://www.pdcnet.org/collection/faithphil_2005_0022_0002_0211_0234.pdf .
    Wind Power Deployment: The Role of Public Participation in the Decision-Making Process in Ontario, Canada
    Wind Power Deployment: The Role of Public Participation in the Decision-Making Process in Ontario, Canada
    A wider use of renewable energy is emerging as a viable solution to meet the increasing demand for global energy while contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, current literature on renewable energy, particularly on wind power, highlights the social barriers and public opposition to renewable energy investment. One solution to overcome the public opposition, which is recommended by scholars, is to deploy a collaborative approach. Relatively little research has specifically focused on the role of effective communication and the use of a knowledge-broker in collaborative decision-making. This study attempts to fill this gap through the proposition of a participatory framework that highlights the role of the knowledge-broker in a wind project decision-making process. In this paper, five illustrative wind projects in Ontario are used to highlight the current situation with public participation and to address how the proposed framework could have improved the process. Based on the recommended collaborative framework, perception must shift from the dominant view of the public as “a risk to be managed” towards “a resource that can be tapped”. The developers need to improve sharing what they know and foster co-learning around questions and concerns., Jami, A., & Walsh, P. (2016). Wind power deployment: The role of public participation in decision-making process in ontario, canada. Sustainability, 8(8), 713., (This article belongs to the Special Issue How Better Decision-Making Helps to Improve Sustainability)
    Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm
    Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm
    Optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network planning, design, deployment and operation often give rise to multi-objective optimization formulations where multiple desirable objectives compete with each other and the decision maker has to select one of the tradeoff solutions. These multiple objectives may or may not conflict with each other. Keeping in view the nature of the application, the sensing scenario and input/output of the problem, the type of optimization problem changes. To address different nature of optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network design, deployment, operation, planning and placement, there exist a plethora of optimization solution types. We review and analyze different desirable objectives to show whether they conflict with each other, support each other or they are design dependent. We also present a generic multi-objective optimization problem relating to wireless sensor network which consists of input variables, required output, objectives and constraints. A list of constraints is also presented to give an overview of different constraints which are considered while formulating the optimization problems in wireless sensor networks. Keeping in view the multi facet coverage of this article relating to multi-objective optimization, this will open up new avenues of research in the area of multi-objective optimization relating to wireless sensor networks., Iqbal, M., Naeem, M., Anpalagan, A., Ahmed, A., & Azam, M. (2015). Wireless sensor network optimization: Multi-objective paradigm. Sensors, 15(7), 17572-17620. doi:10.3390/s150717572, (This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
    Women in the Field: What Do You Know?
    Women in the Field: What Do You Know?
    Rauhala, Ann and April Lindgren. 2012. Women in the Field: What do youknow? Proceedings of the 2012 annual conference of the CanadianCommunication Association. Available via: <http://cca.kingsjournalism.com/?p=173>.
    Women's organizations are different:  their response to shifts in Canadian policy
    Women's organizations are different: their response to shifts in Canadian policy
    [Paragraph 1 of Introduction]: There are an estimated 200,000 nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations in Canada today offering a wide array of services to all segments of the population, ranging from food banks, women’s shelters, children’s aid societies, and immigrant service organizations to environmental protection agencies, opera companies and sporting societies (Browne, 1996). A significant, but unknown, percentage of voluntary organizations are led by women and governed by boards that are predominantly made up of women. Despite the 2 pervasiveness of these organizations, there has been little research focusing on them. We seek to redress this neglect by comparing 351 women’s voluntary organizations to 294 ‘other’ (gender neutral) voluntary organizations. Specifically, this paper investigates whether there are differences in attitudes, behaviours and perceptions between the leaders of women’s voluntary organizations and the leaders of ‘other’ voluntary organizations regarding: 1) perceptions of the environment; 2) outlook for the future; 3) perceptions of the impact of the external environment on the organization; 4) organizational changes made in response to environmental pressures; and 5) collaborative behaviour and attitudes. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Meinhard, A.G. & Foster, M. K. (2002). Women’s Organizations Are Different: Their Response to Shifts in Canadian Policy. (Working Paper Series, Number 21, November 2002). Toronto : Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Volunteer Sector Studies, Ryerson University.
    Women's voluntary organizations are different:  their response to shifts in Canadian policy
    Women's voluntary organizations are different: their response to shifts in Canadian policy
    [Paragraph 1 of Introduction]: Although women make up more then half of Canada’s volunteers, and a large number of voluntary organizations are exclusively female, there has been little research focussing on women’s voluntary organizations. The purpose of this study is to correct this neglect by surveying 351 women’s voluntary organizations (as defined in the Methods section), and comparing them to 294 voluntary organizations that do not fall into the category of women’s organizations. Specifically, we investigate the responses of these voluntary organizations to the changes wrought by the neo-conservative political philosophy that has replaced the social democratic liberalism of the post-war era (see McBride and Shields, 1997). Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Meinhard, A.G. & Foster, M. K. (2002). Women’s Voluntary Organizations are Different: Their Response to Shifts in Canadian Policy. (Working Paper Series Volume 2002(2)). Toronto : Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Volunteer Sector Studies, Ryerson University.
    Women, smartphones and the workplace: pragmatic realities and performative identities
    Women, smartphones and the workplace: pragmatic realities and performative identities
    This paper explores the ways that a sample of professional women use smartphones to manage their personal activities and work responsibilities. It reveals a number of specific, mindful practices used to convey and enable accessibility, professionalism and responsiveness to colleagues and clients, showing how smartphones are used to shape and maintain professional identities. At the same time, women also choose to set boundaries to ensure that the immediacy enabled by their smartphones does not encroach upon their personal relationships in undesirable or unpredictable ways, and to allow them to choose when to engage with work while outside the office. The paper reveals the nuances of smartphone use in this group of women, demonstrating various approaches to managing a potentially disruptive communications device to professional and personal advantage, Crowe, R., & Middleton, C. (2012). WOMEN, SMARTPHONES AND THE WORKPLACE: Pragmatic realities and performative identities. Feminist Media Studies, 12(4), 560-569. doi:10.1080/14680777.2012.741872
    Women’s voluntary organizations and the restructuring of Canada’s voluntary sector: a theoretical perspective
    Women’s voluntary organizations and the restructuring of Canada’s voluntary sector: a theoretical perspective
    Creative and innovative strategies will be required as voluntary organizations find themselves under increased pressure in response to changes in their relationship with government funders. In the past, women’s voluntary organizations shaped the character of the voluntary sector; similarly today, they may be the harbingers of future trends. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Meinhard, A. G. & Foster, M. K. (1996). Women’s Voluntary Organizations and the Restructuring of Canada’s Voluntary Sector: a Theoretical Perspective. (Working Paper Series Volume 1996(3)). Toronto : Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Volunteer Sector Studies, Ryerson University.