Research

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  • The performative manifestation of a research identity: storying the Journey through poetry
    The performative manifestation of a research identity: storying the Journey through poetry
    Cultivating a research identity is an arduous journey. We are told to situate ourselves—know where we are coming from—but it is rare that people share their experiences and provide insight into a journey that indubitably shapes your research. In this performative piece, I shed light on my journey to a research identity. I provide an intimate portrayal of the blurring and temporal nature of research identities that is sometimes avoided and often unaccepted. In doing so, I hope to awaken new understandings and provide insight into what can be a direction(less) journey that leads to a sense of positioning. My journey is a tracing rendered through poetry-enhanced prose, which provides aesthetic sensibilities and the possibility for you to enter into and become caught up in our experience. As well, poetry and photography are bestowed in a way to illuminate the performative and dynamic place of my research identity and as a way to visualize and feel the story within this poetical telling. This is a manifestation of performative social science in which the voice is never solely mine and the identity is never conclusive as it continues to unfold and shift through the spaces I inhabit., Lapum, J. (2008). The Performative Manifestation of a Research Identity: Storying the Journey Through Poetry. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 9(2). Retrieved from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/397
    The plasma peptides of ovarian cancer
    The plasma peptides of ovarian cancer
    Background It may be possible to discover new diagnostic or therapeutic peptides or proteins from blood plasma by using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to identify, quantify and compare the peptides cleaved ex vivo from different clinical populations. The endogenous tryptic peptides of ovarian cancer plasma were compared to breast cancer and female cancer normal controls, other diseases with their matched or normal controls, plus ice cold plasma to control for pre-analytical variation. Methods The endogenous tryptic peptides or tryptic phospho peptides (i.e. without exogenous digestion) were analyzed from 200 μl of EDTA plasma. The plasma peptides were extracted by a step gradient of organic/water with differential centrifugation, dried, and collected over C18 for analytical HPLC nano electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS/MS) with a linear quadrupole ion trap. The endogenous peptides of ovarian cancer were compared to multiple disease and normal samples from different institutions alongside ice cold controls. Peptides were randomly and independently sampled by LC–ESI–MS/MS. Precursor ions from peptides > E4 counts were identified by the SEQUEST and X!TANDEM algorithms, filtered in SQL Server, before testing of frequency counts by Chi Square (χ2), for analysis with the STRING algorithm, and comparison of precursor intensity by ANOVA in the R statistical system with the Tukey-Kramer Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test. Results Peptides and/or phosphopeptides of common plasma proteins such as HPR, HP, HPX, and SERPINA1 showed increased observation frequency and/or precursor intensity in ovarian cancer. Many cellular proteins showed large changes in frequency by Chi Square (χ2 > 60, p < 0.0001) in the ovarian cancer samples such as ZNF91, ZNF254, F13A1, LOC102723511, ZNF253, QSER1, P4HA1, GPC6, LMNB2, PYGB, NBR1, CCNI2, LOC101930455, TRPM5, IGSF1, ITGB1, CHD6, SIRT1, NEFM, SKOR2, SUPT20HL1, PLCE1, CCDC148, CPSF3, MORN3, NMI, XTP11, LOC101927572, SMC5, SEMA6B, LOXL3, SEZ6L2, and DHCR24. The protein gene symbols with large Chi Square values were significantly enriched in proteins that showed a complex set of previously established functional and structural relationships by STRING analysis. Analysis of the frequently observed proteins by ANOVA confirmed increases in mean precursor intensity in ZFN91, TRPM5, SIRT1, CHD6, RIMS1, LOC101930455 (XP_005275896), CCDC37 and GIMAP4 between ovarian cancer versus normal female and other diseases or controls by the Tukey–Kramer HSD test. Conclusion Here we show that separation of endogenous peptides with a step gradient of organic/water and differential centrifugation followed by random and independent sampling by LC–ESI–MS/MS with analysis of peptide frequency and intensity by SQL Server and R revealed significant difference in the ex vivo cleavage of peptides between ovarian cancer and other clinical treatments. There was striking agreement between the proteins discovered from cancer plasma versus previous biomarkers discovered in tumors by genetic or biochemical methods. The results indicate that variation in plasma proteins from ovarian cancer may be directly discovered by LC–ESI–MS/MS that will be a powerful tool for clinical research., Dufresne, J., Bowden, P., Thavarajah, T., Florentinus-Mefailoski, A., Chen, Z. Z., Tucholska, M., . . . Marshall, J. G. (2018). The plasma peptides of ovarian cancer. Clinical Proteomics, 15(1), 1-19. doi:10.1186/s12014-018-9215-z
    The politics of ornament: remediation and/in The Evergreen
    The politics of ornament: remediation and/in The Evergreen
    In “towards a theory of the periodical genre,” Margaret Beetham observes that “the material characteristics of the periodical ... have consistently been central to its meaning” (22–23). In particular, Beetham emphasizes, “the elation of blocks of text to visual material is a crucial part of ” the periodical’s processes of signification and the reader’s experience of making meaning out of its time-stamped yet open-ended issues (24). While this theoretical position underlies much excellent critical work in periodical studies, it is less evident in the electronic repositories on which research in the field increasingly relies. In this paper, I examine what it might mean to inform our digitization practices with a theory of the periodical hypertext as a remediated object. Focusing on the specific editorial problem of periodical pages decorated with textual ornaments, I take as my case study The Evergreen: A Northern Seasonal (1895 to 1897), a Scottish magazine scheduled for markup and publication on The Yellow Nineties Online. Making remediated Celtic ornament a structural feature of its aesthetic design and an integral expression of its larger political agenda, the Evergreen reminds us of what is at stake if our own electronic remediation practices are not adequate to the periodical objects we study., "The Politics of Ornament: Remediation and/in The Evergreen" was first published in ESC: English Studies in Canada in the special issue on Magazines and/as Media: The Politics and Aesthetics of Periodical Form, vol 41, no. 1 (2015): 1-24.
    The potential impact of increased treatment rates for alcohol dependence in the United Kingdom in 2004
    The potential impact of increased treatment rates for alcohol dependence in the United Kingdom in 2004
    Alcohol consumption has been linked to a considerable burden of disease in the United Kingdom (UK), with most of this burden due to heavy drinking and Alcohol Dependence (AD). However, AD is undertreated in the UK, with only 8% of those individuals with AD being treated in England and only 6% of those individuals with AD being treated in Scotland. Thus, the objective of this paper is to quantify the deaths that would have been avoided in the UK in 2004 if the treatment rate for AD had been increased. Methods Data on the prevalence of AD, alcohol consumption, and mortality were obtained from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, and the 2004 Global Burden of Disease study respectively. Data on the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and Motivational Interviewing/Cognitive Behavioural Therapy were obtained from Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses. Simulations were used to model the number of deaths under different treatment scenarios. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model the effects of Brief Interventions and to examine the effect of using AD prevalence data obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Results In the UK, 320 female and 1,385 male deaths would have been avoided if treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment had been increased to 20%. This decrease in the number of deaths represents 7.9% of all alcohol-attributable deaths (7.0% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for women and 8.1% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for men). If we used lower AD prevalence rates obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, then treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment in hospitals for 20% of the population with AD would have resulted in the avoidance of 529 deaths in 2004 (99 deaths avoided for women and 430 deaths avoided for men). Conclusions Increasing AD treatment in the UK would have led to a large number of deaths being avoided in 2004. Increased AD treatment rates not only impact mortality but also impact upon the large burden of disability and morbidity attributable to AD, as well as the associated social and economic burdens., Shield, K. D., Rehm, J., Rehm, M. X., Gmel, G., & Drummond, C. (2014). The potential impact of increased treatment rates for alcohol dependence in the united kingdom in 2004. BMC Health Services Research, 14(1), 53-53. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-53
    The process of institutional isomorphism in Ontario’s voluntary sector
    The process of institutional isomorphism in Ontario’s voluntary sector
    In this paper, we investigate the evolving relationship that is occurring in the wake of a prolonged period of funding cuts, between government and voluntary organizations in Ontario. Interviews with government officials delineate a process of formal and informal coercive isomorphism to bring about desired behaviours in voluntary organizations. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Meinhard, A.G., Foster, M.K. & Berger, I. (2004). The process of institutional isomorphism in Ontario’s voluntary sector. (Working Paper Series Volume 2004(3)). Toronto : Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Volunteer Sector Studies, Ryerson University.
    The promise of migration : a companion to the International Metropolis Conference 2019, Ottawa, Canada
    The promise of migration : a companion to the International Metropolis Conference 2019, Ottawa, Canada
    [Para. 1 of Introduction]: Migration is shaping societies around the world. It has long defined settler countries, such as Canada; it is affecting communities of departure and return, ranging from the Azores to Zimbabwe; and it is increasingly impacting countries that have traditionally not considered themselves as major immigrant destinations, like many European countries. Meanwhile, individual migrants and their families experience departure, migration, and arrival differently than the communities shaped by them. From both societal and individual perspectives, we can ask whether migration accomplishes what it promises to achieve. Does migration contribute to the economic, social, and cultural well-being of societies? Do migrants and their families find a pathway to security, achieve social and economic upward mobility, and gain opportunities to participate in the political and cultural life of their arrival communities? The Promise of Migration addresses these questions through a critical lens., Bauder, H. (Ed.). (2019). The promise of migration : a companion to the International Metropolis Conference 2019, Ottawa, Canada. Toronto: Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada; Graduate Program in Immigration and Settlement Studies, Ryerson University.
    The proteins cleaved by endogenous tryptic proteases in normal EDTA plasma by C18 collection of peptides for liquid chromatography micro electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry
    The proteins cleaved by endogenous tryptic proteases in normal EDTA plasma by C18 collection of peptides for liquid chromatography micro electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry
    The tryptic peptides from ice cold versus room temperature plasma were identified by C18 liquid chromatography and micro electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS/MS). Samples collected on ice showed low levels of endogenous tryptic peptides compared to the same samples incubated at room temperature. Plasma on ice contained peptides from albumin, complement, and apolipoproteins and others that were observed by the X!TANDEM and SEQUEST algorithms. In contrast to ice cold samples, after incubation at room temperature, greater numbers of tryptic peptides from well characterized plasma proteins, and from cellular proteins were observed. A total of 583,927 precursor ions and MS/MS spectra were correlated to 94,669 best fit peptides that reduced to 22,287 correlations to the best accession within a gene symbol and to 7174 correlations to at least 510 gene symbols with ≥ 5 independent MS/MS correlations (peptide counts) that showed FDR q-values ranging from E−9 (i.e. FDR = 0.000000001) to E−227. A set of 528 gene symbols identified by X!TANDEM and SEQUEST including C4B showed ≥ fivefold variation between ice cold versus room temperature incubation. STRING analysis of the protein gene symbols observed from endogenous peptides in normal plasma revealed an extensive protein-interaction network of cellular factors associated with cell signalling and regulation, the formation of membrane bound organelles, cellular exosomes and exocytosis network proteins. Taken together the results indicated that a pool of cellular proteins, or protein complexes, in plasma are apparently not stable and degrade soon after incubation at room temperature., Dufresne, J., Florentinus-Mefailoski, A., Ajambo, J., Ferwa, A., Bowden, P., & Marshall, J. (2017). The proteins cleaved by endogenous tryptic proteases in normal EDTA plasma by C18 collection of peptides for liquid chromatography micro electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry. Clinical Proteomics, 14(1), 39-19. doi:10.1186/s12014-017-9174-9
    The relationship between CABG patient characteristics and perceived learning needs: a secondary analysis
    The relationship between CABG patient characteristics and perceived learning needs: a secondary analysis
    Background: Patients’ learning needs are influenced by socio-cultural characteristics such as level of formal education, sex, and age. Limited research has examined this influence. Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to describe the number and type of learning needs identified, and 2) to examine the relationships between learning needs and socio-cultural characteristics (education, sex, and age). Design: This study was a sub-study of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) that evaluated the most appropriate time for delivering education to patients who had CABG surgery. Sample: Individuals having CABG with 1-4 grafts for the first time and who were literate and cognitively oriented to person, place, and time were included in this study. Analysis: Descriptive and correlation statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: A significant difference between learning needs and sex (p = 0.00) was noted, while a significant relationship between learning needs and age (p = 0.03) was identified. Conclusion: This study represents a first step towards identifying the association between perceived learning needs and socio-cultural characteristics., Fredericks, S. (2009). The relationship between CABG patient characteristics and perceived learning needs: a secondary analysis. Canadian Journal Of Cardiovascular Nursing, 19(1), 13-19.
    The role of multiculturalism policy in addressing social inclusion processes in Canada
    The role of multiculturalism policy in addressing social inclusion processes in Canada
    As we approach the 40th anniversary of Canada’s multiculturalism policy, the concept of multiculturalism is under attack in many jurisdictions. The leaders of Germany, France and Britain, have each declared that multiculturalism has been a failure in their countries, serving to separate and segregate, rather than integrate (Edmonton Journal, February 13, 2011). It seems timely therefore, to briefly review the origins and evolution of Canada’s multiculturalism policy and examine future directions in light of the changing global and national situation, and newly emerging public discourses on integration, inclusion and the meaning of Canadian identity. The focus of this paper is on the role multiculturalism policy plays in creating a more inclusionary society in the twenty-first century in Canada. We set the context by presenting a brief historical overview of multiculturalism policy since its introduction in 1971 and summarizing some of the recent Canadian discourse surrounding multiculturalism. One of the key questions we explore is whether multiculturalism policy should move beyond focusing on the integration of population groups marginalized by national, racial, religious or ethnic origins, to addressing broader social inclusionary processes that influence inequities and impact on nation. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Hyman, I., Meinhard, A. & Shields, J. (2011). The role of multiculturalism policy in addressing social inclusion processes in Canada (Working Paper Series Volume 2011 (3)).Toronto: Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Ryerson University.
    The role of social capital: bridging, bonding or both?
    The role of social capital: bridging, bonding or both?
    [First paragraph of Introduction] : Nonprofit scholars have investigated several theoretical avenues in their search for an understanding of the role of nonprofit organizations in society. Some discussions have concentrated on the economic role of nonprofit organizations focusing on contribution to GDP (Stewart, 1996, Weisbrod, 1998), job growth (Hall & Banting, 2000), and the labour force value of volunteer work (Day & Devlin, 1996; Duchesne, 1989). Other discussions have considered the role from the perspective of contribution to society in terms of social service provision, and recreational and cultural enrichments beyond what can be provided by the for profit or government sectors (Hall & Banting, 2000, Kramer, 2000, Salamon & Anheier, 1998). Yet, a third scholarly focus has been to investigate the role of voluntary organizations in developing and maintaining social capital. With the publication of Putnam’s (2000) book, Bowling Alone, this concept has become the topic of increasing academic discourse, because of the connection that he makes between voluntary associations, social capital and economic development. Indeed, Putnam (1993, 1995) and Fukuyama (1995) conclude that social capital is a precondition for economic prosperity. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of voluntary organizations as bridgers and bonders in society and the implications of this role in social and economic development. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:, Foster, M. K., Meinhard, A.G. & Berger, I. The Role of Social Capital: Bridging, Bonding or Both? (Working Paper Series Volume 2003(1)). Toronto : Ted Rogers School of Management, Centre for Volunteer Sector Studies, Ryerson University.
    The role of the library in the first college year: the Canadian perspective
    The role of the library in the first college year: the Canadian perspective
    Electronic copy of an article originally published in: Reference Services Review, 36 (3): 301-311, 2008. Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited Publisher URL: www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00907320810895387
    The spiral structure of Marshall McLuhan’s thinking
    The spiral structure of Marshall McLuhan’s thinking
    We examine the spiral structure of the thinking and the work of Marshall McLuhan, which we believe will provide a new way of viewing McLuhan’s work. In particular, we believe that the way he reversed figure and ground, reversed content and medium, reversed cause and effect, and the relationship he established between the content of a new medium and the older media it obsolesced all contain a spiral structure going back and forth in time. Finally, the time structure of his Laws of Media in which a new medium obsolesced an older medium, while retrieving an even older medium and then when pushed far enough flipped into a still newer medium has the feeling of a spiral. We will also examine the spiral structure of the thinking and work of those thinkers and artists that most influenced McLuhan such as Vico, Hegel, Marx, Freud, Joyce, TS Eliot, Wyndham Lewis and the Vorticism movement. Keywords: spiral; McLuhan; reversal; figure/ground; Laws of Media; media; environment/anti-environment; cause; effect, Pruska Oldenhof, I., & Logan, R. (2017). The spiral structure of Marshall McLuhan’s thinking. Philosophies, 2(2), 9., (This article belongs to the Special Issue The Philosophy of and the Philosophical Roots of Marshall McLuhan and the Media Ecology School)