Research

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  • Toward 2020 : new directions in journalism education.
    Toward 2020 : new directions in journalism education.
    With one exception (the keynote address by Robert Picard), all of the essays in this volume are expanded versions of presentations made at the conference “Toward 2020: New Directions in Journalism Education,” held at Ryerson University in Toronto on 31 May 2014. Testifying to the urgent interest in professional renewal among journalism educators, more than one hundred people from Canada, the United States, Europe, and Australia attended the conference. The papers published here represent a reasonable cross-section of the issues discussed. The authors advance different ideas about where journalism education should go from here; at times they disagree with one another, but all share the underlying view that if business as usual was ever a viable option, this clearly is no longer the case., Allen, G., Craft, S., Waddell, C., Young, M. L., & Ryerson Journalism Research Centre. (2015). Toward 2020: New directions in journalism education Ryerson Journalism Research Centre.
    Toward Press Council 2.0: An international review of models of, and alternatives to, the traditional press council
    Toward Press Council 2.0: An international review of models of, and alternatives to, the traditional press council
    This paper presents an overview of preliminary results from a comparative study of existing press council models in Canadian provinces and similar democracies abroad. Gathering information by a combination of survey and qualitative-interview methodologies, we are analyzing the relative effectiveness of, and difficulties faced by, varying models of councils. Among the issues to be analyzed are: how existing models of Canadian press councils compare with one another, and with models operating in other democracies; how various stakeholders define the purpose(s) of press councils; the difficulties faced by existing and defunct provincial news councils in achieving their various goals; whether a national press council may be viable and, if so, what the key function(s) of a national press council might be., Shapiro, Ivor and Lisa Taylor. 2012. Toward Press Council 2.0: An international review of models of, and alternatives to, the traditional press council. Proceedings of the 2012 annual conference of the Canadian Communication Association. Availablevia: <http://cca.kingsjournalism.com/?p=175>.
    Towards Understanding the Nature of High Frequency Ultrasound Backscatter from Cells and Tissues: an Investigation of Backscatter Power Spectra from Different Concentrations of Cells of Different Sizes
    Towards Understanding the Nature of High Frequency Ultrasound Backscatter from Cells and Tissues: an Investigation of Backscatter Power Spectra from Different Concentrations of Cells of Different Sizes
    Online version of an conference paper originally published as: Towards understanding the nature of high frequency ultrasound backscatter from cells and tissues: an investigation of backscatter power spectra from different concentrations of cells of different sizes. M.C. Kolios, G.J. Czarnota, A. Worthington, A. Giles, A.S. Tunis and M.D. Sherar, In Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Publisher URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?isnumber=30603&arnumber=1417798&count=203&index=156
    Towards a Sanctuary Province: Policies, Programs, and Services for Illegalized
Immigrants’ Equitable Employment, Social Participation, and Economic Development
    Towards a Sanctuary Province: Policies, Programs, and Services for Illegalized Immigrants’ Equitable Employment, Social Participation, and Economic Development
    Abstract Given contemporary federal migration policies, Canada can expect increasing numbers of immigrants who do not possess legal status. The exploitation of these “illegalized” immigrants in the labour market affects wages and labour standards for all Canadians. To mitigate the negative effects of federal immigration policies, Toronto and Hamilton have declared themselves sanctuary cities. In this working paper, we explore initiatives that could be applied at the provincial and territorial scale to enhance access to employment for illegalized immigrants. After conducting a scoping analysis of the literature, we conclude that provinces and territories could implement a range of programs, policies, and service deliveries., Hannan, C.-A. & Bauder, H. (2017). Towards a Sanctuary Province: Policies, Programs, and Services for Illegalized Immigrants' Equitable Employment, Social Participation, and Economic Development. Toronto: Ryerson Centre for Immigration & Settlement.
    Towards an Automatic Ice Navigation Support System in the Arctic Sea
    Towards an Automatic Ice Navigation Support System in the Arctic Sea
    Conventional ice navigation in the sea is manually operated by well-trained navigators, whose experiences are heavily relied upon to guarantee the ship’s safety. Despite the increasingly available ice data and information, little has been done to develop an automatic ice navigation support system to better guide ships in the sea. In this study, using the vector-formatted ice data and navigation codes in northern regions, we calculate ice numeral and divide sea area into two parts: continuous navigable area and the counterpart numerous separate unnavigable area. We generate Voronoi Diagrams for the obstacle areas and build a road network-like graph for connections in the sea. Based on such a network, we design and develop a geographic information system (GIS) package to automatically compute the safest-and-shortest routes for different types of ships between origin and destination (OD) pairs. A visibility tool, Isovist, is also implemented to help automatically identify safe navigable areas in emergency situations. The developed GIS package is shared online as an open source project called NavSpace, available for validation and extension, e.g., indoor navigation service. This work would promote the development of ice navigation support system and potentially enhance the safety of ice navigation in the Arctic sea., Liu, X., Sattar, S., & Li, S. (2016). Towards an automatic ice navigation support system in the Arctic Sea. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 5(3), 36. doi:10.3390/ijgi5030036, (This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridging the Gap between Geospatial Theory and Technology)
    Towards determining the effect of shallow depth horizontal ground loop clearance on the heat loss of a single family residential dwelling
    Towards determining the effect of shallow depth horizontal ground loop clearance on the heat loss of a single family residential dwelling
    Using solar energy stored in the ground to preheat incoming fresh ventilation air with ground loops is a renewable energy system which is becoming more frequently used in new residential developments. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of ground loop to foundation wall clearance on building heat loss. Additionally, the thermal properties of the soil were examined to determine their impact on the ground loop’s effect on heat loss. A simulation based research approach was conducted using HEAT3, which is a three-dimensional transient heat transfer software. This study found that ground loop clearance had a larger impact on building heat loss for areas with low thermal conductivity soils than for areas with high thermal conductivity soils. On average, ground loop clearances of 10cm, 50cm, 100cm, and 200cm resulted in increased building heat losses of 20%-83%, 19%-55%, 16%-35%, and 12%-15% respectively.
    Tower renewal:  community development in Toronto's apartment neighbourhood of Thorncliffe Park
    Tower renewal: community development in Toronto's apartment neighbourhood of Thorncliffe Park
    Thorncliffe Park is an inner suburban apartment neighbourhood and an “arrival city” for new comers to Canada. It suffers as a failed modernist utopian experiment and route to nowhere. Its status is symptomatic of an overall isolation faced by many failed utopian neighbourhoods around the world. The City of Toronto’s Tower Renewal Program is a bold community development initiative that proposes to break this isolation by turning Toronto’s apartment neighbourhoods into vibrant, socially and economically viable urban communities. This paper focuses on the role of planning policy in promoting community development initiatives. In particular, it focuses on the Tower Renewal Program as a suitable community development initiative in Thorncliffe Park. It contributes to the body of knowledge on community development at Toronto’s “arrival cities”. As a resident of Thorncliffe Park for almost a decade, this research provides the opportunity for me to contribute to the body of knowledge on my beloved former neighbourhood. Key Words: inner suburbs, apartment neighbourhoods, towers-in-the-park, tower renewal, revitalization, community development, planning.
    Tracking immigrant professionals' experience in Manitoba's labour market
    Tracking immigrant professionals' experience in Manitoba's labour market
    Our project aims to improve immigrant integration programs by exploring the immigration and settlement process from the perspective of professionals and trades people who are clients of Winnipeg’s Success Skills Centre, an agency that offers employment assistance services to immigrant professionals and skilled workers. We make three observations on the integration experience of immigrant professionals and trades people in the Manitoba labour market. First, recent immigrants to Manitoba through the Provincial Nominee Program (PNP) have been educated and skilled, yet their labour market participation has often been restricted to general labour and entry-level employment. Second, immigration policy sets a minimum amount of money that an adult immigrant has to bring with him or her, resulting in a demand/supply mismatch in the labour market. Finally, employment has not been a fair or effective stepping-stone to integration in the case of visible minority immigrants. Our research indicates that a strict labour market definition of success fails to capture the expectations and real life goals of new immigrants. Key Words: immigration, professional immigrants, workforce, integration, Manitoba
    Tracking the cellulolytic activity of Clostridium thermocellum biofilms
    Tracking the cellulolytic activity of Clostridium thermocellum biofilms
    Background Microbial cellulose conversion by Clostridium thermocellum 27405 occurs predominantly through the activity of substrate-adherent bacteria organized in thin, primarily single cell-layered biofilms. The importance of cellulosic surface exposure to microbial hydrolysis has received little attention despite its implied impact on conversion kinetics. Results We showed the spatial heterogeneity of fiber distribution in pure cellulosic sheets, which made direct measurements of biofilm colonization and surface penetration impossible. Therefore, we utilized on-line measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) production in continuous-flow reactors, in conjunction with confocal imaging, to observe patterns of biofilm invasion and to indirectly estimate microbial accessibility to the substrate’s surface and the resulting limitations on conversion kinetics. A strong positive correlation was found between cellulose consumption and CO2 production (R2 = 0.996) and between surface area and maximum biofilm activity (R2 = 0.981). We observed an initial biofilm development rate (0.46 h-1, 0.34 h-1 and 0.33 h-1) on Whatman sheets (#1, #598 and #3, respectively) that stabilized when the accessible surface was maximally colonized. The results suggest that cellulose conversion kinetics is initially subject to a microbial limitation period where the substrate is in excess, followed by a substrate limitation period where cellular mass, in the form of biofilms, is not limiting. Accessible surface area acts as an important determinant of the respective lengths of these two distinct periods. At end-point fermentation, all sheets were digested predominantly under substrate accessibility limitations (e.g., up to 81% of total CO2 production for Whatman #1). Integration of CO2 production rates over time showed Whatman #3 underwent the fastest conversion efficiency under microbial limitation, suggestive of best biofilm penetration, while Whatman #1 exhibited the least recalcitrance and the faster degradation during the substrate limitation period. Conclusion The results showed that the specific biofilm development rate of cellulolytic bacteria such as C. thermocellum has a notable effect on overall reactor kinetics during the period of microbial limitation, when ca. 20% of cellulose conversion occurs. The study further demonstrated the utility of on-line CO2 measurements as a method to assess biofilm development and substrate digestibility pertaining to microbial solubilization of cellulose, which is relevant when considering feedstock pre-treatment options., Tracking the cellulolytic activity of Clostridium thermocellum biofilms by Alexandru Dumitrache; Gideon M Wolfaardt; David Grant Allen; more... Biotechnology for Biofuels, 01/2013, Volume 6, Issue 1