Theses

The cost of building for the future: the reconciliation of sustainable housing issues in Toronto
The cost of building for the future: the reconciliation of sustainable housing issues in Toronto
Although some green housing elements have become more commonplace in residential renovations in Canada, the undertaking of complete green retrofits is relatively uncommon. This paper explores the barriers to green retrofits, such as affordability and bureaucracy, in the urban context of the City of Toronto. The research was informed by one main case study, one supplementary case study, and six interviews with sustainable housing experts. The research has yielded nine recommendations that are directed towards three levels of government and related public and private housing organizations. These recommendations have been made in the hopes of making sustainable housing more ubiquitous in Toronto.
The costs and risks of Brownfield redevelopment versus Greenfield development:  a priveat sector perspective on the effectiveness of community incentive packages.  A case study of Waterloo, Ontario
The costs and risks of Brownfield redevelopment versus Greenfield development: a priveat sector perspective on the effectiveness of community incentive packages. A case study of Waterloo, Ontario
Traditionally, there has been minimal interest on behalf of developers, land owners as well as private sector stakeholders to redevelop brownfields (De Sousa, 2000). The fears of real or perceived contamination have made the redevelopment project too expensive and risky to develop profitably. Limited government funding and assistance to the private sector for brownfield redevelopment further complicates brownfield redevelopment. This research investigated Ontario’s Community Improvement Plans with brownfield provisions and how they quantitatively aid investor returns. Hypothetical scenarios for a multifamily residential development were generated for both hypothetical brownfield and greenfield sites where brownfield incentives could be implemented. The pro forma analysis revealed that a full exemption from regional development charges (RDC) had the greatest effect on investor returns (NPV and IRR) followed by the joint TIEG offered in the City of Waterloo. Greenfield development is the most financially feasible option with no added costs or risks from contamination.
The crime-terror nexus in Canada: changing human trafficking operations and smuggling
The crime-terror nexus in Canada: changing human trafficking operations and smuggling
In the post-9/11 era, the Canadian and the United States government are facing two phenomena, Narco-Terrorism and Crime-Terror Nexus. Terrorist groups and transnational organized crime are aligning their illicit activities. This thesis will demonstrate how the convergence of these two clandestine enterprises changes human trafficking and smuggling operations, and thus pose a higher caliber threat to vulnerable populations, such as victims of trafficking and refugees. Links will be drawn to explain why Canada’s current border security and refugee system are ill-equipped to address these nefarious activities. The thesis proposes recommendations offered by Canadian experts in the field of migration policy and international security. However, implementations depend heavily on how receptive Canada’s general public is. The majority of Canadians are not aware that issues of human trafficking and smuggling and refugee are intertwined with border security, transnational organized crime, and now terrorist groups.
The current state of safety within the wet laboratories of a Canadian academic institution
The current state of safety within the wet laboratories of a Canadian academic institution
Working in an academic laboratory (lab) often involves handling hazardous substances (Shariff & Norazahar, 2012). These substances are dangerous due to their toxic, flammable, explosive, carcinogenic, pathogenic or radioactive properties (Furr, 2000). Therefore, it is crucial that those working in these environments do so safely. Recently, many researchers and students from various universities in the U.S. and globally have suffered severe injuries and fatalities from lab accidents. For example, in 2008 a lab fire at the University of California Los Angeles led to the death of a student(Van Noorden, 2011). Following this and other similar accidents that transpired afterwards, an international study was conducted to understand the state of safety within the wet labs of today’s universities(Van Noorden, 2013a). The findings revealed numerous safety gaps and an overall lack of a strong and positive safety culture within the labs (Benderly, 2013;and Schröder, Huang, Ellis, Gibson, & Wayne, 2016). Since the majority of the accidents and study reports were predominantly from the U.S., it is unknown if the same safety gaps and risks also exist in the wet labs of Canadian universities. Therefore, this research study examined the state of safety within the wet laboratories of a medium-sized Canadian university. This was achieved by: 1) conducting an inventory of the labs’ hazardous substances to identify their labeling and storage conditions, 2) inspecting the labs to identify potential hazards or risky conditions, and 3) surveying lab personnel to understand how safety is perceived and practiced. The results show several safety deficiencies and a negative perception on certain safety elements among the lab personnel. As in universities in the U.S. there is an overall need to enhance thecurrent culture of safety at this Canadian university.
The dawn of the Somali written word:  an analysis of the creation and implementation of the Somali written language
The dawn of the Somali written word: an analysis of the creation and implementation of the Somali written language
My major research paper (MRP) is grounded in the history of Somalia’s first orthography implemented in 1972 by President Mohamed Siad Barre. This meant that for the first time Somali history, there would be a written language that mirrored the Somali oral tradition in all its complexity. The nation’s longstanding cultural tradition of oral poetry has both impacted, and been impacted by the implementation of the orthography. Through the use of semi-structured interviews and grounded theory as my method of analysis, the purpose of this MRP is to explore this reciprocal impact between Somalia’s oral tradition and the implementation of the orthography, and also to explore how Somali poetry provides a unique lens into this reciprocal impact. After stating the data, I present the findings in two stages: (a) in the form of short stories that provide insight into the topic from the perceptions and perspectives of each interviewee, and (b) as overarching themes that have emerged from the interviewees collectively. The findings reveal that the colonial period in Somalia gave rise to the necessity of an orthography for the oral Somali language which then introduced a level of cultural anxiety as the oral tradition of knowledge preservation eventually weakened. Nonetheless, although the Somali orthography is now seen first and foremost as a means of knowledge preservation, the Somali culture still demonstrates a deep connection to their oral heritage.
The demise of safety film : a review of the cellulose acetate based negatives in the collection of the Kodak  Canada Archive
The demise of safety film : a review of the cellulose acetate based negatives in the collection of the Kodak Canada Archive
The vinegar syndrome, a process in which cellulose acetate based films deteriorate, is becoming a prominent problem within collections worldwide. To understand this phenomenon one must look at the history and make up of cellulose acetate, the chemistry of the degradation process and the steps institutions are taking to stabilize objects to allow future access. With this knowledge, preservation strategies need to be applied to promote longevity. To illustrate this idea, a collection of forty degrading negatives from the Kodak Canada Archive at Ryerson University Library have been used as a case study in which research on cellulose acetate, the chemistry of this material, the vinegar syndrome, and present recommendations for storage have been taken into consideration and used as a basis for a re-housing project. All information and objects are used to argue for the preservation of such objects and the understanding of the importance of the object itself.
The design and build of 'special needs' housing for developmentally and physically disabled persons
The design and build of 'special needs' housing for developmentally and physically disabled persons
Concept/needs of user -- Planning context -- Support services -- Organizations involved -- Design process -- Regulatory framework & community interaction -- Management process -- Appendix A: Typical case study: "Group home in North York" -- Appendix B: Questionnaire: client information profile -- Appendix C: Problem identification matrix -- Appendix D: Group homes, Metropolitan Toronto, 1987 -- Appendix E: Group home operator's neighbourhood dialogue guidelines -- Appendix F: Solicitor's certificate #1 -- Appendix G: Initial project submission "560" -- Appendix H: Project application "1414" -- Appendix I: Standard budget package (Ministry of Community & Social Services) -- Appendix J: Design illustrations -- Appendix K: Metropolitan Toronto Draft Official Plan; Policies -- Appendix L: Management plan (city of Toronto Fire Department) -- Appendix M: Housing types.
The design and development of an algorithm for automatically creating transit networks in transcad to measure regional accessibility
The design and development of an algorithm for automatically creating transit networks in transcad to measure regional accessibility
The Metrolinx Economic Analysis team commissioned Arup Canada to create a tool to measure regional transit accessibility called WithinReach. It allows transportation professionals to quickly evaluate and compare existing services versus potential projects, using availability metrics. The calculation requires the summarization of all transit route operations across a geographic area into performance standards for one service day. In the Greater Toronto-Hamilton Area (GTHA), detailed timetables are available in the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) format, however manually preparing this data for WithinReach is labour-intensive. Due to the frequency of changes to vehicle and route schedules, and the number of regional agencies, maintaining an up-to-date summary of operations is cumbersome. This report covers the design, development, testing, procedure, and validation of a Transit Network Builder (TNB) to automate this effort. The TNB abstracts GTFS schedule data into performance benchmarks for use with the WithinReach Tool and the TransCAD transportation planning environment.
The design and development of an audio-only rhythm game
The design and development of an audio-only rhythm game
The size of visually-impaired population in the world is large. They usually have a better hearing than normal people, but the lack of vision prevents them from enjoying video games. Audio games, as the main output of the type of game is sound, naturally become a game genre that visually-impaired people can play. The project designed and developed a rhythm audio game for visually-impaired people. The game has been successfully tested for different songs.
The design of a memory controller for DDR SDRAM
The design of a memory controller for DDR SDRAM
Memory system performance is an important factor in determining overall system performance. The design of key components of the memory system, such as the memory controller, becomes more important as memory performance becomes a limiting factor in high performance computing. This work focuses on the design of a unit which sends control signals to Double Data Rate Synchronous Dram (DDR SDRAM). The design is based on established concepts such as access reordering. A novel, adaptive page policy based on a machine learning algorithm has been developed in this work and evaluated with traditional page policies. the work illustrates some of the design trade-offs in a memory controller and the performance of the designs when using real application address traces.The results show that access reordering improves the performance of DDR SDRAM compared to in-order scheduling (up to 50% improvement) and that scheduling multiple requests can result in latency hiding. The dynamic page policy approximates the best static page policy in most cases.
The development of a geo-referencing system for machine controlled construction equipment
The development of a geo-referencing system for machine controlled construction equipment
Machine controlled construction equipment (MCE) continues to garner support from the construction industry due to shortages of skilled labor, constant technological advances and the importance of construction to the overall economy. MCE requires reliable, real-time geo-referencing of the equipment end-effector. However, MCE research continues to focus on relative positioning for control system design, while research dealing with geo-referencing has been mainly in the fields of aerial mapping and terrestrial mobile mapping, which can benefit from post-processing. The research described in this thesis attempts to overcome this problem by developing a real-time geo-referencing system specifically for MCE. The total system consists of three components; an integrated DGPS/INS to geo-reference the equipment main-body; an open kinematic chain to relatively position the end-effector with respect to the main-body; and a unified model to geo-reference the end-effector. The system carrier is designed for an excavator, but the model for the development of the open kinematic chain, designed using the Denavit-Hartenberg convention, can accommodate any type of MCE. The overall objective was the development of a precise geo-referencing system that could be operated under all construction conditions and could achieve an accuracy required for the recording of exposed infrastructure which calls for a vertical component of 15mm. This required high-level accuracy in both the position and orientation, therefore, DGPS and INS were integrated. Furthermore, the positional accuracy required double-differenced carrier phase measurements implemented using a least squares method for ambiguity resolution. Extended Kalman filters (EKF) were used for DGPS baseline estimation and DGPS/INS integration, the latter using a tightly-coupled, closed-loop architecture. Finally, error analysis was completed on the open kinematic chain to resolve the accuracy required in the joint sensors. System testing was completed using sample data from an International Federation of Surveyors Commission mobile van test and simulated data for the open kinematic chain. Results showed that the geo-referencing system was able to achieve ±0.024m (RMSE) horizontally and ±0.034m (RMSE) in height when the excavator was stationary and executing a common digging trajectory. The accuracy achieved would allow the excavator to operate autonomously for several common construction tasks.
The development of a molecular toolbox to examine the role of protein O-mannosylation in actinobacteria
The development of a molecular toolbox to examine the role of protein O-mannosylation in actinobacteria
Protein glycosylation is the most abundant and diverse protein modification that occurs in all domains of life. It is defined as the covalent attachment of a carbohydrate moiety to a specific amino acid on a target protein. The functional role of this attachment is implicated in and spans various cell processes from cell signaling, cell defense, and pathogenesis – to name a few. A specific type of protein glycosylation, called protein O-mannosylation (POM) is a process found to be conserved from bacteria to man. In humans, POM is required for healthy cell function, and the absence of POM can cause fatal diseases. Certain prokaryotic species possess a related POM system, but it is poorly understood. It is our hypothesis that the analysis of the POM system in simpler organisms can aid in the characterization of this process and the functional role of the mannosylated proteins that are produced. However, the protocols to prove this theory do not yet exist. This thesis establishes a collection of developed protocols that can be used to characterize the POM systems from gram-positive species Corynebacterium glutamicum and Cellulomonas fimi. In addition the first ever evidence of a C. fimi glycoprotein being glycosylated by the endogenous C. glutamicum POM system is provided.