Theses

The potential of raman spectroscopy as a monitoring tool for thermal therapy
The potential of raman spectroscopy as a monitoring tool for thermal therapy
Laser Interstitial thermal Therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique for treating localized solid tumors through heating with light. LITT is not routinely employed in a clincal setting due to difficulties in real-time monitoring of tissue heating. This work investigates the feasibility of Raman Spectroscopy (RS) to monitor thermal therapies. RS has the ability to detect changes in the seconcary structure of proteins, and may prove useful as an indicator of tissue coagulation in real-time during thermal therapy. Tissue equivalent albumen phantoms were heated in a water bath and bovine muscle samples where heated in a water bath and through laser photocoagulation. Raman spectra were acquired after heating and increases in the overall Raman intensity and shifts in major band locations were observed after heating. Correlations between Raman intensity and thermal dose were also observed. These results indicate that RS may be employable as a real-time monitoring tool for LITT.
The potential of thermal energy storage as an energy retrofit measure for high-rise residential buildings in Canada
The potential of thermal energy storage as an energy retrofit measure for high-rise residential buildings in Canada
High-rise apartments are a prominent type of residential buildings in Canadian cities. However, poor aging performance of existing apartments has led to high discomfort and energy consumption that must be addressed. Thermal energy storage is a potential energy retrofit measure that affects energy consumption by regulating radiant temperatures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of latent thermal energy storage using phase change materials (PCMs) integrated into walls and ceilings of apartment units. A composite PCM system comprised of two different PCM products with melting points of 21.7 oC and 25 oC is proposed and evaluated to provide a year-around thermal energy storage. A simulation analysis using Energy Plus is performed to investigate the impacts of the composite PCM system on indoor temperatures and energy use. An experimental study is conducted using two small scale test cells to monitor the performance of the PCM system in detail.
The potential value of academic practice organization partnerships in facilitating a positive transition experience for Canadian new graduate nurses
The potential value of academic practice organization partnerships in facilitating a positive transition experience for Canadian new graduate nurses
Canadian nurse leaders have called for academic and practice organizations to address ongoing issues in undergraduate nursing education and the new graduate nurse transition to the nursing role in the practice setting. The purpose of this study was to explore Canadian nurse leaders’ perspectives of the potential value of academic-practice organization partnerships in facilitating a positive transition experience for Canadian new graduate nurses. An exploratory qualitative descriptive approach was employed using semi-structured interviews and conventional content analysis. Nurse leader participants reported value in academic and practice organizations communicating and collaborating to address matters contributing to the new graduate nurse transition to the practice setting. Implications for practice, education, policy and research are explored.
The preparation and characterization of structurally stable 5-coordinate polystannanes
The preparation and characterization of structurally stable 5-coordinate polystannanes
Tetraorganotin compounds [2-(MeOCH2)C6H4]SnR3 (R = Me, n-Bu, Ph) containing a C,O-chelating ligand were prepared in good yield from the reaction of the R3SnCl and [2-(MeOCH2)C6H4]Li. Tethered organotin compounds Ph3Sn(CH2)3OC6H4R (R = Ph, H, CF3, OCH3) were prepared in good yield from the hydrostannylation reactions of the corresponding vinyl ethers with Ph3SnH. Conversion of two organotin compounds to triorganotin chlorides and diorganotin chlorides, (Ph3-nClnSn(CH2)3OC6H4R; R = H, Ph: n = 1, 2), was successfully carried out and characterisation afforded by NMR spectroscopy. X-ray crystallographic studies revealed a tetrahedral geometry for the tetraorganotin Ph3Sn(CH2)3OC6H4CF3, while five-coordinate trigonal bipyramidal structures with relatively short Sn-O (2.7-2.8 Å) interactions were observed for both mono- (Ph2ClSn(CH2)3OC6H4R; R = H, Ph) and dichloride (PhCl2Sn(CH2)3OC6H4R; R = H, Ph) species. Penta-coordinate diorganotin dichlorides containing a C,N- chelating ligand[2-(Me2NCH2)C6H4]RSnCl2 (R = Me, n-Bu, Ph) or C,O- chelating ligand [2-(MeOCH2)C6H4]RSnCl2 (R = Me, n-Bu, Ph) were prepared by treating RSnCl3 with the lithiated salts [2-(Me2NCH2)C6H4]Li and [2-(MeOCH2)C6H4]Li respectively. Organotin chlorides were successfully reduced with LiAlH4 or NaBH4 to produce novel hydrides. Catalytic dehydrocoupling of diorganotin dihydrides to yield polystannanes was explored using a variety of dehydrocoupling catalysts such as Wilkinson’s catalyst, Cp2ZrMe2 or TMEDA. In almost every instance this resulted in the formation of yellow coloured gummy polymeric materials of moderate molecular weights (Mw = 1 × 104 - 1 × 105 Da) and PDI’s (1.3-2.0). The stability of polystannanes containing tethered O or C,N- or C,O-chelating ligands was investigated in both solid and in solution using NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies. These studies revealed an enhanced stability to ambient light in the solid state and in solution in the dark when compared to known poly(dialkyl)stannanes.
The presence of honey triggers inhibition of pseudomonas  aeruginosa virulence and metabolism
The presence of honey triggers inhibition of pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and metabolism
Honey is an ancient remedy with a high potency against drug-resistant bacteria, which has gained renewed interest in naturopathic medicine for its beneficial effect in treatment and prevention of wound infections. The exact antibacterial property and mode of action of honey is still unknown, however in recent years, there has been various studies focusing on the effect of honey on bacterial gene regulation. With the focus of current literature being at the molecular level, the first aim of this study was to examine the effect of honey at the cell level and its influence on the metabolism of P. aeruginosa biofilm. The second objective of this study was to test the influence of the combination of the iron chelating agent (EDTA) and honey on biofilm metabolism. P. aeruginosa metabolism in this study was analyzed through (i) siderophore excretion and (ii) monitoring of the biofilm CO2 respiration rate with a Carbon dioxide Evolution Measurement System (CEMS). The results obtained indicate that honey reduces biofilm metabolism and inhibits siderophore production, while the combination of honey and EDTA has a greater impact on biofilm metabolism, which influences P. aeruginosa iron homeostasis, inhibits siderophore production, and increases bacterial recovery time after exposure. However, when provided at concentrations lower than its inhibitory concentration, honey is used as a nutrient source for biofilm development. The results obtained illustrated the importance of the environmental conditions on biofilm metabolism, as the biofilm response varied with minor changes in the composition of their media. In summary, this study showed that biofilm cells shut down their metabolism in the presence of honey, which also inhibits bacterial siderophore production and can play an importance role on the virulence of P. aeruginosa.
The propelling monument : latent architecture within the existing urban fabric.
The propelling monument : latent architecture within the existing urban fabric.
An increased awareness of the existing urban fabric has led to a return of interest of the built environment in architecture. Can architecture emerge from within built buildings at different moments after construction, or does architecture occur only within the design of new buildings, as commonly assumed? This thesis examines the theories in adapting existing urban fabric as a key urbanistic strategy: to enrich cities with a layering characteristic of time. It encourages a perception of the latent architectural potential within built buildings, that architecture is a temporal state rather than a finished artefact. Most importantly, it fosters an experiment of the counterpoint of different interventions with the layers of the existing building to sensitively establish a new form of architecture. An abandoned Generating Station in Toronto is used as a testing ground to demonstrate how to re-think architecture as emerging from within built buildings at different moments of time.
The purpose of public art in the Canadian suburb: an evaluation of Markham's public art program
The purpose of public art in the Canadian suburb: an evaluation of Markham's public art program
Public art is a creative placemaking tool to enhance the quality of civic life and foster a sense of community. There is growing enthusiasm for public art to be integrated into the suburban environment in fostering a more culturally vibrant place. This paper explores the unique challenges faced in suburban public art planning. The City of Markham’s new public art program is used as a case study. Successful public art in the suburb should reflect the local community’s history, values, or needs. Public engagement and collaboration is critical to creating public art that garners intrinsic connections. Generally, since suburban municipalities have smaller populations and lower developmental demand than urban cores, they should incorporate a variety of funding tools to effectively sustain their public art programs. Markham should increase its efforts on engaging the public in all aspects of public art commissioning, and maximize their financial resources in order to increase the presence of its program.
The re-collection of the Ryerson fashion research collection
The re-collection of the Ryerson fashion research collection
Christian Dior once said, “We invent nothing, we always start from something that has come before” (qtd. in Pochna 80). Historic garments can inform and inspire the present, offering up design potential for reinterpretations of styles of the past or serving as evidence of how fashion was worn and lived for material culture studies. Seeing a dress in a photo is a very different experience than feeling the weight of the fabric in hand, examining the details of cut, construction and embellishment, considering the relationship of the garment to the body or searching for evidence of how the garment was worn, used or altered over time. The Ryerson Fashion Research Collection is a repository of several thousand items acquired by donation since 1981, many of which are dresses and evening gowns dating from 1860 to 2000. For several years, this collection lay dormant behind an unmarked door and was largely unknown by the student body. This project was initiated to understand the nature of the artifacts contained therein and is a first step in the process of refocusing and rebuilding the Collection for the future. The title “Re-collection of the Ryerson Fashion Research Collection” encapsulates the organizing principle for this practice-led interdisciplinary project, encompassing the intersection of material culture, curatorial process and collective memory in the identification of one hundred key items from the archive that reflect the breadth and history of the Collection itself.
The reality of rurality : parent experiences with best start in two rural communities
The reality of rurality : parent experiences with best start in two rural communities
Human services literature from a variety of disciplines demonstrates that rural and urban communities pose different challenges and opportunities for service delivery; however, little research specifically explores early learning and care service delivery in rural communities. This qualitative study draws on a critical ecological systems perspective to examine the experiences of rural parents accessing services through a specific service delivery strategy, Best Start networks. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data gathered from two rural communities as part of a larger study examining parent experiences with Best Start in three communities across Ontario (Underwood, Killoran, & Webster, 2010). Three themes emerged that related specifically to the rural experience: (a) Opportunities for Social Interaction; (b) Accessibility of Services; and, (c) Impact of Personal Relationships. Results indicate that certain factors related to rural life and location affected parents' experiences with Best Start services. Drawing on the broadly defined concept of accessibility, implications for rural service delivery are discussed and recommendations for practice and future research are presented.
The referral of Pakistani immigrant children for special education in Toronto : perceptions and attitudes of parents
The referral of Pakistani immigrant children for special education in Toronto : perceptions and attitudes of parents
This study examines the perceptions of Pakistani immigrant parents regarding the referral of their children to special education programs in Toronto. The study is qualitative and is based on the grounded theory method. Interviews were conducted by the author with five parent participants and were transcribed and coded. This research provided insight into the perceptions of Pakistani immigrant parents whose children (8-12 years) are in special needs classes. Also included in the data is an interview the author conducted with a Pakistani parent who is also working as a special needs assistant in the Toronto District School Board (TDSB). The findings of the study indicate that there are five main reasons behind the referral of Pakistani immigrant children for special education: 1) parent attitudes; 2) cultural and linguistic differences; 3) teacher attitudes; 4) peer attitudes; and 5) immigration. The results indicate that there is an over-referral of Pakistani immigrant children [in Toronto schools] according to Pakistani parents' perceptions. Recommendations are made for implementing change within the special education system in the TDSB and areas for future research are identified.
The regulation of the cell surface proteome by amp-activated protein kinase
The regulation of the cell surface proteome by amp-activated protein kinase
The cell-surface proteome controls numerous cellular functions and is dynamically controlled by endocytosis and recycling under different cellular conditions. Energy stress is a state in which a cell must engage adaptive responses to ensure survival, including remodelling of the cell-surface proteome. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important metabolic regulator in the cell. Recent studies suggest AMPK activation may alter the endocytosis of a few specific proteins. How increased AMPK activity globally regulates the cell surface proteome is not known. I have developed a method to isolate the cell surface proteome from cultured cells. Coupling this method to quantitative mass spectrometry has allowed systematic identification of changes in the cell-surface proteome upon metabolic regulation. I found that activation of AMPK results in robust changes in the cell surface proteome, including cell adhesion and migration proteins. I confirmed that AMPK activation elicits a decrease in the cell surface abundance of the adhesion and migration protein β1-integrin, and that this is correlated with altered function of the endocytosis protein Dab2. Thus, my research furthers our understanding of how AMPK regulates the cell surface proteome and the specific mechanism by which AMPK regulates cellular adhesion and migration.