Theses

 Three phase digital earth leakage detection
Three phase digital earth leakage detection
In any electrical system, protection is the most important requirement to secure both human lives and appliances from any damage. The THREE PHASE EARTH LEAKAGE DETECTION (TDELD), is a design which could be implemented in three phase electrical environment to provide protection to user as well as equipments against any earth leakage fault. Being a microcontroller based solution, it provides ease and luxury at the user end with the help of its auto reset and display features. This research will attempt to improve the existing ELCB design using PIC microcontroller to automatically switch back system to its normal mode when the TDELD tripped during any electric shock or temporary earth leakage while in permanent leakage fault, it provide input control to bring back the system to its normal operation. The results of this research after doing several tests have shown that the average sensitivity value for TDELD against leakage current is better than what could be found in a conventional ELCB.
 Too hot for the Library:  access to films with sensitive content
Too hot for the Library: access to films with sensitive content
This thesis explores decisions on access to collections with sensitive content through a case study analysis of the library principles and archival practices applied to the films from the Youth Film Distribution Center (YFDC). These films are overseen by the Reserve Film and Video Collection at The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Dorothy and Lewis B. Cullman Center. The Reserve Film and Video Collection has been the principal circulating audiovisual department for The New York Public Library since the 1950s. The objective of this thesis is to explore processing decisions for films with sensitive content (e.g. films promoting negative stereotypes of their subjects or featuring violent or sexually explicit content). The thesis offers an historical overview of the Youth Film Distribution Center and outlines the processing decisions surrounding levels of access for the YFDC title Seeing (1972).
 Towards accurate FPGA area models for FPGA architecture evaluation
Towards accurate FPGA area models for FPGA architecture evaluation
Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices are integrated circuit chips which can be configured by the end user. FPGA architectures have evolved into heterogeneous System-on-Chips (SoCs) devices in order to meet the diverse market demands. Integrating reconfigurable fabrics in SOCs require an accurate estimation of the layout area of the reconfigurable fabrics in order to properly accommodate early floor-planning. Hence, this work provides an evaluation on the accuracy of the minimum width transistor area models in ranking the actual layout area of FPGA architectures. Both the original VPR area model and the new COFFE area model are compared against the actual layouts with up to 3 metal layers for the various FPGA building blocks. We found that both models have significant variations with respect to the accuracy of their predictions across the building blocks. In particular, the original VPR model overestimates the layout area of larger buffers, full adders and multiplexers by as much as 38% while underestimates the layout area of smaller buffers and multiplexers by as much as 58% for an overall prediction error variation of 96%. The newer COFFE model also significantly overestimates the layout area of full adders by 13% and underestimates the layout area of multiplexers by a maximum of 60% for a prediction error variation of 73%. Such variations are particularly significant considering sensitivity analyses are not routinely performed in FPGA architectural studies. Our results suggest that such analyses are extremely important in studies that employ the minimum width area models so the tolerance of the architectural conclusions against the prediction error variations can be quantified. This work proposes a more accurate active area model to estimate the layout area of FPGA multiplexers by considering diffusion sharing and folding. In addition, we found that comparing to the minimum width transistor area model, the traditional metal area based stick diagrams, in lieu of actual layout, can provide much more accurate layout area estimations. In particular, minimum width transistor area can underestimate the layout area of LUT multiplexers by as much as a factor of 2-3 while stick diagrams can achieve over 85% -95% percent accuracy in layout area estimation. Based on our work, we present correction factors to the commonly used FPGA building blocks, so their actual layout area can be used to achieve a highly accurate ranking of the implementation area of FPGA architectures built upon these layouts.
 Towards assessing buildability in wood framed, superinsulated wall assemblies.
Towards assessing buildability in wood framed, superinsulated wall assemblies.
A superinsulated home has many attractive attributes including reducing CO2, saving energy and smaller energy bills. The Passive House certification—which originated in Europe—proves that superinsulating is an effective way to reduce energy consumption. As the popularity of superinsulation grows in North America, the need to assess the buildability of these structures increases. This MRP identifies six metrics of buildability for wood framed, superinsulated walls and creates a tool which can be used to assess the buildability of these assemblies. The tool will assess a specific set of working drawings in their local context. The tool is simple to use, assuming that the user has an understanding of the basics of building science and an understanding of the capabilities of the local trades and the local availability of materials. The initial tool was tested by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of a series of case studies for most of the metrics. A revised tool is proposed which has been refined to address the shortcomings of the initial tool.
 Unboxing Nelvana: animation cel preservation and storage for the Nelvana animation collection
Unboxing Nelvana: animation cel preservation and storage for the Nelvana animation collection
With no concrete preservation practices in place, the conservation and preservation of animation cels is a challenge for the stewards of animation-related collections. Characterized as mixed media artefacts, animation cels fall somewhere between illustrative art and motion picture film, which partially accounts for the lack of defined guidelines. Studies researching the conservation of animation cels, such as the one conducted by the Getty Conservation Institute in collaboration with the Disney Animation Research Library are so recent that, to date, no conclusive findings have been established. This practical report focuses on the organization, conservation, and storage of the Nelvana Animation Collection housed at Media Commons, University of Toronto Libraries. The information and recommendations provided within are intended as a guide for approaching animation cel care and conservation following “best known practices.” These practices include currently adopted methods of cel conservation, as well as techniques borrowed from the conservation practices of similar objects.
 Working with sexual violence in the latinx community: testimonios and stories of racialized women workers
Working with sexual violence in the latinx community: testimonios and stories of racialized women workers
This narrative qualitative research study explores the experiences of Latinx women working with sexual violence in the Latinx community. It explores the stories and showcases the testimonios of two women who have worked in the field of sexual violence within the Latinx community in Toronto, Ontario for many years. Both participants shared similar stories, as well as different experiences with their own individual lenses. The theoretical framework draws from a critical race feminism theory as well as Latinx feminism, creating a mestizaje of theory. A narrative approach was used to collect data, along with an arts-based portion to honour traditional methods of knowledge sharing and expression. Data analysis included a thematic analysis to further look into the themes that emerged from the findings. Implications for future social work research and practice under an anti-oppressive lens are discussed in the conclusion.
 “Now I feel ‘truly’ like me!”: a discourse analysis of the ways ‘the gaze’ functions in two children's picture books featuring transgender and gender variant characters
“Now I feel ‘truly’ like me!”: a discourse analysis of the ways ‘the gaze’ functions in two children's picture books featuring transgender and gender variant characters
Drawing on transgender, queer and feminist theoretical perspectives, I critically analyze two children’s picture books featuring transgender and gender variant characters. With these critical theoretical perspectives in mind, this discourse analysis examines the ways the books, both visually and textually, depict gender embodiment and the experiences of the characters. Using questions derived from these theoretical lenses, I analyze concepts of power, normalcy, difference, the gender binary, gender fluidity, intelligibility and unintelligibility. These concepts contribute to the dominant discourse of ‘the gaze’, seen in varying ways in the books. Children’s story books largely underrepresent the experiences of transgender characters, particularly books outlining, and explaining, a social gender transition. The majority of picture books with LGBTQ+ themes focus on same sex families and feature boys in dresses, thus centralize around disrupting the constraints of masculinity. I conclude this paper with recommendations for selecting, reading, and discussing books with transgender and gender variant protagonists. The central themes outlined in the academic literature illustrate that ‘the gaze’ and regulation of knowledge have a significant impact on what is visible in children’s books. This may ultimately affect children’s understanding, and appreciation, of gender variance and, hence, social gender transitions in early childhood.
"A Stone In The Ocean": A Mixed Methods Investigation Into The Experiences Of Families Trying To Reunite In Canada
"A Stone In The Ocean": A Mixed Methods Investigation Into The Experiences Of Families Trying To Reunite In Canada
Every year many families are formed, or find themselves separated, across borders. To address the problem of family separation, the family class stream of immigration to Canada, which accounts for 20-30% of new immigrants annually, allows citizens or permanent residents to sponsor certain family members for permanent residency. Yet there has been very little research on experiences of this policy. Family reunification immigration, located at the intersection of the personal and the political, has been marginalized by masculinized policy disciplines that focus on macro-trends in immigration and render the family invisible, and by feminized disciplines that focus on the family and individual in immigration while rendering policy invisible. This dissertation fills that gap in the literature, using a critical policy studies approach informed by aspects of Critical Theory, intersectionality and Foucauldian interpretations of power. I explore the lived experiences of families as they apply to reunite through the family class stream, and of families who would like to apply to reunite but cannot. I used mixed methods—qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys—to collect data from 169 families, and 100 key informants who support applicant families, including lawyers, consultants, settlement workers and constituency office caseworkers. This approach and research design allowed me to expose and develop a deep knowledge of families’ experiences that have until now been marginalized. Findings show that, though the decision on an immigration application is important, a sole focus on that decision both excludes applicants’ vastly different experiences during the process and renders invisible those who cannot even apply. Diversity in experiences was closely related to interactions between different aspects of social location, and policy design and implementation. Applicants exercised many forms of initiative and agency, but were ultimately constrained by policy structures. The new Government has recently made promising changes, but we must ensure these changes are effective and continue to advocate for further improvements that would mitigate applicants’ negative experiences. Finally, more research needs to be done, most importantly on family reunification through immigration streams that were excluded from this study.
"Can I not wear my hijab in peace?" : understanding young Muslim girls reason for and experiences of wearing the hijab
"Can I not wear my hijab in peace?" : understanding young Muslim girls reason for and experiences of wearing the hijab
The aim of this research paper was to explore the reasons for and experiences of young Muslim girls wearing the hijab. Their decision to wear the hijab is examined by exploring the concept of choice within the framework of socialization. The participants included 4 young Muslim girls in the age range of 11-13 wearing the hijab and attending Canadian public school. Focus group and individual interviews were used for data collection.The results showed that religion was the primary reason why these girls chose to wear the hijab followed by their desire to develop a cultural identity and to represent Islam in the North American society. Family, peers and media were found to have an effect on their decision to wear the hijab. The girls narrated positive as well as negative experiences in and out of school, but were determined in their decision to wear the hijab and were happy with their decision. The implications and limitations of the study indicate a need for future research on this topic.
"Canadian Experience' and Other Barriers to Immigrants' Labour Market Integration: Qualitative Evidence of Newcomers From the Former Soviet Union
"Canadian Experience' and Other Barriers to Immigrants' Labour Market Integration: Qualitative Evidence of Newcomers From the Former Soviet Union
Employment has always been the primary settlement need for most newcomers. However, more recent immigrants’ labour market integration achievements have generally not matched that of the Canadian-born, despite the fact that, on average, immigrants arrive in Canada better educated and at a similar stage of their career as those born in the country. Lack of recognition of international credentials, insufficient language proficiency and lack of Canadian experience are the most commonly cited barriers to immigrants obtaining employment commensurate with their skills level. This puts immigrants in a classic Catch 22 situation: unable to gain appropriate employment without Canadian experience, but unable to get this experience. As a result, many highly-skilled immigrants spend years trying to break into the skills commensurate labour market, and the longer it takes, the more difficult it becomes to have their skills and experience recognized.This study was designed to identify the nature and scope of the barriers that prevent foreign-trained professionals from practicing their professions and contributing more meaningfully to their new society. In particular, the study seeks to explore experiences of main applicants who came to Canada under the Skilled Workers category from the republics of the former Soviet Union.
"Conversations that fly:" the Little Review and modernist salon culture
"Conversations that fly:" the Little Review and modernist salon culture
Margaret Anderson (1886-1973), the American writer, editor, publisher, and impassioned promoter of avantgarde forms of expression, defined great art as a struggle for communication (Anderson, Little Review Anthology 11). She ardently believed that the exchange of ideas is a sometimes difficult but vital component of the creative process. It is because of this belief that she launched a magazine called the Little Review in 1914, which quickly established itself as the leading avantgarde magazine of its era. The Little Review was launched on the eve of the First World War, a period when widespread tensions manifested themselves in the arts as well as in political and social realms. It was therefore a time when Modernism - a revolutionary movement in the literary and visual arts that began in the late nineteenth century in response to traditional discourses of rationality and reached its apogee in First-World-War and post-war era- established itself with a broad array of new cultural expressions (Tew and Murray 11). Modernist experimentations were spearheaded by its avantgarde, a group of radical artists and writers representing an aggressively antagonistic spirit and revolting against the old systems of order and bourgeois institutions of art, as theorist Renato Poggioli (8) has described the historical avantgarde of the early twentieth century. As we shall see, the Little Review was an important member of a vanguard that helped create a cultural revolution by casting off, and inventing entirely new, literary and artistic conventions.
"Good" evidence: a critical lens on representations of development and the developing world
"Good" evidence: a critical lens on representations of development and the developing world
The ethics of conventional representations of the developing world in charity fundraising and photojournalism have been increasingly questioned. Van Leeuwen‘s (2000) social semiotic model of analysis of visual racism, applied to a famine image, reveals strategies for symbolically representing otherness that perpetuate a naturalized ― "Western rescuer/developing world victim" narrative. Respondent interviews demonstrate that such ― "poverty porn" produces viewer apathy, while an alternative representation depicting self-determination evokes a charitable response. Elliott‘s (2003) ethical framework is used to judge the harm of conventional representations. The results, while tentative, suggest worth in expanding the study in light of implications for represented persons, the viewer, and Canadian society. In the meantime, image producers and distributors must become visually literate to avoid using harmful images.