Theses

"We're all friends here":  how do early childhood educators promote friendship in the classroom?
"We're all friends here": how do early childhood educators promote friendship in the classroom?
This qualitative study set out to explore how five early childhood educators perceive and promote friendship in a toddler room, a preschool room, and a kindergarten room of an early learning center in Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore educator’s perceptions about friendship and their reported strategies for promoting friendship. Observations of each classroom explored educator’s strategies used to promote friendship in practice. New sociology of childhood and developmental theoretical frameworks were used to explore educator’s perceptions and strategies. Educator’s perceptions about friendship were placed on a continuum ranging from perceptions that aligned with new sociology of childhood to developmental theory. The reported and observed strategies were categorized into active, reactive and passive strategies. Implications of these findings for practice, policy, and research were discussed.
"Well, listen ... " : acoustic community on Toronto Island.
"Well, listen ... " : acoustic community on Toronto Island.
"Well, listen. .. "is a sound composition about the acoustic community of Toronto Island and Toronto Harbour. The project explores how people create and experience acoustic community, how perceptions of the soundscape are related to attitudes about nature and culture, and how power relationships are articulated through sound. The project is based in environmental cultural studies and in sound ecology, notably the work of Williams (1973), Schafer (1977), Westerkamp (2002) and Truax (1984), and concludes seven months of soundwalks, interviews, composition, editing and field research. Participants discussed the soundscape of Toronto Island, noise pollution in Toronto Harbour and the relationship between sound, community and ecology. These interviews were edited and re-assembled in a manner inspired by the contrapuntal voice compositions of Glenn Gould. Field recordings reflect the complex mix of natural, social, and industrial sounds that make up the soundscape of the harbour, and document the acts of sound walking and deep listening that are the core methods of soundscape research. The composition creates an imaginary aural space that integrates the voices and reflections of the Island's acoustic community with the contested soundscape of their island home. The project paper outlines the theory and methods that informed the sound composition, and further explores the political economy of noise pollution, especially in relation to the Docks nightclub dispute and to current research in sound ecology.
"Why nobody told me and why it would have been impossible to do so until now" : an autoethnographic inquiry into teaching and learning towards social justice in early childhood teacher education
"Why nobody told me and why it would have been impossible to do so until now" : an autoethnographic inquiry into teaching and learning towards social justice in early childhood teacher education
In this paper, a personal narrative autoethnographic methodology is used to begin mapping a transformative learning journey towards teaching and learning for social justice in early childhood teacher education. In autoethnography, personal lived experience is the primary source of data. This inquiry explores two stories of personal transformative learning using a journey metaphor to structurally frame the inquiry. Through a process of writing as inquiry (Richardson, 2003) and emotional introspection (Ellis, 1991) and using a conceptual framework based on postmodern perspectives, this autoethnographic research paper reveals the steps toward critical consciousness (Freire, 2006) taken by the author/researcher-a student in early childhood teacher education-as she uses personal narratives of lived experience in early childhood teacher education as primary data to explore the implications of this transormative learning process to explore themes around teaching and learning towards social justice in early childhood teacher education programs.
"You Have to Have Tough Skin": The Impact of Social Exclusion on Immigrant Mothers of Children with Disabilities
"You Have to Have Tough Skin": The Impact of Social Exclusion on Immigrant Mothers of Children with Disabilities
This exploratory research considers the way gender, racialized ethnicity, and disability, as markers of difference, contribute to the social exclusion experienced by immigrant mothers as primary caregivers of child(ren) with a disability. Interviews were held with eight immigrant mothers in the Greater Toronto Area exploring barriers to accessing informal, formal networks of support, and the resulting impact on their lives. The findings include a lack of ethno-specific and extended family support as well as a lack of accessible, transparent government, social service information, and service provision. Other issues concern language, equity and access to services, impact on personal health, caregiving for aging parents, and future concerns for their children’s short and long-term welfare. Recommendations are based on a social inclusion framework of principles, which are relevant to policy makers, service providers, educators, and members of society.
"You have the right to remain silent, so why are you talking?" : interrogation rights, decision making, and the availability heuristic
"You have the right to remain silent, so why are you talking?" : interrogation rights, decision making, and the availability heuristic
A police interrogation is one mechanism by which a false confession is sometimes obtained, which in turn can lead to a wrongful conviction. Given the severity of this consequence, rights for criminal suspects have been developed to protect the innocent. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of these rights has been called into question, as there is evidence that most people do not fully understand their rights, and the rate at which people choose to waive their rights is extremely high. The current study examined factors relating to people's interpretation of their rights when asked to speak with police. It was found that participants retained their rights at higher rates than expected. In addition, the results indicate that it is possible to affect waiver rates by manipulating the availability of information relating to negative or positive interrogation outcomes. This could have practical implications for how criminal suspects' rights are administered.
"You told me I couldn't play there":  an autoethnographic exploration of children's outdoor play
"You told me I couldn't play there": an autoethnographic exploration of children's outdoor play
Playing outdoors is an essential component of childhood yet that play is often bound by adult perceptions of safety, risk, and children’s capabilities. Research reflects the positive value that playing freely outdoors has in terms of children’s overall development. However, literature also highlights the impact of a societal focus on safety, which can limit young people’s access to the outdoors and the types of play that they seem to enjoy. The tension that can exist between pedagogical practices and trusting children to be safe plays out within the structure and format of this paper as the motifs of bounding and resistance that can exist in both research and play are unearthed. Drawing on autoethnographic and narrative approaches I explore, share, and reflect upon outdoor play experiences from my own childhood as a means to gain a deeper understanding of how children were and are positioned in society and communities.
# Pillar of Defense: Using Social Media to Manage Impressions of Conflict: A Case Study of the November 2012 Israel-Hamas conflict
# Pillar of Defense: Using Social Media to Manage Impressions of Conflict: A Case Study of the November 2012 Israel-Hamas conflict
Threats to reputation can destroy a brand. Communicating effectively during a conflict can help to manage negative impressions that expose brands to reputation risk. This is important now more than ever as organizations—and nations—turn to Twitter to address various publics. The rigid 140-character structure of Twitter thus necessitates the creation of sound bites that act as productive texts to address multiple rhetorical objectives simultaneously. An examination of the Israel Defense Forces’ (IDF) Twitter account through sentiment and content analysis shows evidence that the Force took a significantly defensive approach to impression management of Operation Pillar of Defense in November 2012. There is evidence that Israel sought to re-frame public impression of its military involvement from aggressor to defender in the armed conflict. Codes discovered in the analysis suggest that the IDF tried to justify force, avoid responsibility and establish legitimacy of its operations.
#FollowUs: Brand connectivity and marketing techniques that attract millennials on Instagram
#FollowUs: Brand connectivity and marketing techniques that attract millennials on Instagram
The increasing digitization of contemporary media and culture -- particularly in the West -- is changing how companies market themselves to their target audiences. As the millennial generation increases its online presence and its use of mobile digital technologies, companies whose main consumers lie within this demographic are having to shift their marketing tactics to become more technologically- and mobile-friendly. The world of social media, in particular, has become the second (virtual) home for much of the millennial population. How they dress, where they go, and what they eat are all becoming increasingly impacted by the companies, brands, people, and trends they “follow” online. In this Major Research Project (MRP) I will focus on the ways companies are marketing to millennials by focusing on the ways two clothing brands favoured by millennials are marketing and branding themselves on Instagram. I demonstrate that while these companies’ brand values may be exceedingly different from one another, their social media/Instagram strategies are surprisingly similar. That is, I will argue that these two clothing brands follow a distinctly similar set of social media marketing techniques in order to bring the best shopping experience through the use of images and captions -- into the digital world and to their millennial audiences. In other words, by adhering to a sort of social media orthodoxy, these brands are able to create a stronger connection between themselves and their millennial generation of followers.
#JustDoIt: Brand-to-Consumer Interaction via Twitter
#JustDoIt: Brand-to-Consumer Interaction via Twitter
Nike’s “Possibilities” campaign has become a prime example for social media adoption in marketing. In August 2013, Nike had asked its consumers to redefine “Just Do It” by taking to Twitter and sharing their athletic achievements under the #JustDoIt hashtag. The iconic slogan has since then evolved from a mere promotional message to a trending Twitter topic that continues to engage consumers today. By examining Nike’s #JustDoIt Twitter conversation, marketing professionals and scholars alike can develop a more informed understanding of how Twitter facilitates interaction between a brand and its consumers. The paper aims to explore how Twitter can be used to develop and maintain relationships between businesses and consumers by examining the interactions within Nike’s #JustDoIt conversation. Using Bakhtin’s (1981) notion of heteroglossia and Zappavigna’s (2011) interpretation of the imagined audience and ambient affiliation, this paper will conceptualize the interactions that took place and demonstrate their applications to the practice of social business (Rajagopal, 2013) and Integrated Marketing Communication (Kapoor, Jayasimha, and Sadh, 2013). The research questions are: (1) How does #JustDoIt facilitate interaction between Nike and its consumers? (2) What are Twitter users saying in Nike’s #JustDoIt conversation? (3) To what ends does #JustDoIt serve in Nike’s overall mission? Heteroglossia, the imagined audience, and ambient affiliation are all concepts that can be used to describe user interactions within Twitter hashtags. For businesses, these terms provide a framework for better understanding how branded content can reach audiences on Twitter, thus informing strategies that seek to engage consumers and spark conversations.
#Work! The Effect of Hashtag Campaigns: a Modern Form of Free Labour
#Work! The Effect of Hashtag Campaigns: a Modern Form of Free Labour
This MRP will attempt to explain social media today by applying Smythe’s (2006) research on audience commodity and free labour regarding television and broadcast to hashtag campaigns on Instagram, such as Coca-Cola’s #ShareaCoke, and Calvin Klein’s #MyCalvins. This MRP will support literature pertaining to audience commodity and free labour, the monetization of user-generated content via social media marketing, and the nature of the audience. Through a mixed methods approach, the campaigns will be analyzed in hopes of discovering how social media has revolutionized the role of the audience, which has shifted drastically due to the participatory nature of the Internet—thus, demonstrating the transformation of the audience as users to producers to advertisers of user-generated content created for hashtag campaigns on Instagram. Ultimately, this MRP will seek to demonstrate that this transformation has resulted in exploitation of users, and have revolutionized the model of free labour and commodity as outline by Smythe (2006).
'I do' belong to you : debating the vulnerability of Filipino mail-order brides in Canada
'I do' belong to you : debating the vulnerability of Filipino mail-order brides in Canada
This qualitative essay examines to what extent mail-order brides are a vulnerable population, concentrating on Filipino mail-order brides in Canada. The literature on mail-order brides has generally been polarized between two positions, one that tries to victimize all mail-order brides and one that tries to presume that all mail-order brides are in control of their own destinies. This paper aims to asses these polarized positions on the basis of empirical information proided in the literature and two interviews done with representatives from organizations that work with the Filipino community in Canada.
'Natural Conservatives?': Examining the Voting Associations Of Ethnic And Visible Minorty Communities In The Toronto CMA, 2007 to 2011
'Natural Conservatives?': Examining the Voting Associations Of Ethnic And Visible Minorty Communities In The Toronto CMA, 2007 to 2011
The Conservative Party of Canada attributed its successful breakthrough in the Toronto area during the 2011 Canadian federal election to their engagement of ethnic and visible minority voters, whereas in the past, these voters were associated with the Liberal party. This research study uses spatial and statistical analyses to test patterns of association between the electoral support for the three major parties and presence of ethnic and visible minority communities. The research uses data from the 2006 Census of Canada, as well as the voting results of the 2011 and 2008 federal elections, the 2011 and 2007 Ontario provincial elections and the 2010 Toronto mayoral election. The findings suggest that non-European origin ethnic and visible minority communities are associated with the Liberal party at the federal and provincial levels, but the opposite is true at the municipal level, and the federal Liberals are haemorrhaging support from ethnic and visible minority communities to the Conservatives and NDP. The victories of the federal Conservatives may instead be associated with other factors like vote splitting, low voter turnout, and divisions between urban and suburban areas., Title should read: 'Natural Conservatives?': Examining the Voting Associations Of Ethnic And Visible Minority Communities In The Toronto CMA, 2007 to 2011.